Do You Trust Computer Software? How About If It Was Flying the Airliner You Were In?

Today, most of us trust the computer software we use to do the jobs we need it to do. We all use word processors, operating systems, email, and browsers to surf the Internet, and we trust that computer software will get the job done for us right? Well, would you trust an airliner with a…

Today, most of us trust the computer software we use to do the jobs we need it to do. We all use word processors, operating systems, email, and browsers to surf the Internet, and we trust that computer software will get the job done for us right? Well, would you trust an airliner with a special operating system to fly the plane you and your family boarded for your vacation? In national surveys, most people say no, they want a human pilot.

Still, we know most plane crashes can be contributed to at least partially human or pilot error. And when our computers crash often it is operator error that is partly to blame. Okay so, the interesting news is each year when such surveys are done more and more people check the box that they would trust and fly in an unmanned computer software flown airliner. Last month, I was discussing this issue with a think tanker type, Troy Laclaire who stated; “although it would surprise them (airline passengers) to know just how much is already automated.”

He is exactly correct, as the reality is that the modern-day Boeing 747 can fly its entire flight, from adding power at the threshold on takeoff to landing, and all the pilot has to do is pull the thrust reversers, once the airplane lands . Better yet, it can land and take off in 0/0 visibility, without anyone looking out the window. And that automation is being around for 20 years now.

Okay so, what I am saying is that we have the technology to fly these airplanes without people in them. You could have someone taxing the airplane out by tele-robotics, or even completely autonomously. We have all the capability, and the military should be looking into this further logistical operations, by the way I do not doubt for a single second they are not.

You see, we have aircraft which can fuel themselves in flight without humans being involved – UAV to UAV completely autonomously. We have all the automation we need to do all this right now, and the NextGEN air-traffic control system for the most part is really already here it's just a matter of implementation. But as Troy and I have been discussing humans are not really ready to turn over airline flights to artificial intelligent robotics yet. But it will happen.

When in the future humans; passengers, pilots, FAA bureaucrats, airline executives, pilot's unions, and airliner insurance companies decide to let it happen is anyone's guess. Indeed, I hope you will please consider all this.

NASA, FAA, AOPA, EAA, DOT, and the NextGen of General and Commercial Aviation Considered

No one really likes to sit in committees and listen to the incessant details, many of which are quite irrelevant to solving the problems. Oh sure, folks like to list all those committees on their resumes, who would not, at one-time, I used to do that too, so who am I to judge, or you…

No one really likes to sit in committees and listen to the incessant details, many of which are quite irrelevant to solving the problems. Oh sure, folks like to list all those committees on their resumes, who would not, at one-time, I used to do that too, so who am I to judge, or you for that matter? Last month I was discussing the years of meetings and concepts which had come out of the generating the proposals for the NextGen of general and commercial aviation with a fellow think tanker type.

When looking at the challenges with the plan, I was complaining about several major factors. My acquaintance, Troy Laclaire, stopped me mid-sentence and said; “Entirely possible that pilots were involved somewhere …”

Yes, the AOPA, EAA, and all the groups I know of were involved with NASA, and the NextGen projects – common cockpit, future ATC, eco-aerospace designs of the future, Point-to-point air travel, air taxi concepts, and flying cars. Yes, they were. But really it was mostly contractors, NASA, FAA, DOT, bureaucrats, university professors, and others, oh yes and lawyers too representing airliners, manufacturers, electronic companies, and politicians at various levels padding their BS resumes.

You see, I read all their stuff, position papers, research, most all of which I actually contributed myself in a few days, but indeed, it did not appear to me that they were not really looking for input, mostly busy congratulating themselves and pumping up the egos of future aerospace engineers, astronauts and industry employees. Shortages you know for the FAA controllers in the future, engineers, and pilots too probably. And we need to keep experienced people in these fields until then.

Fact is everyone wants quighter, safer, and more fuel efficient aircraft, who would not, and with the money saved there is an endless list of those who want it for their own coffers too. Troy laughed at my comments and said; “The problem here comes in is that the airlines want to cut costs, and the pilots want more money.”

Yes, that's true meanwhile OPEC is taking it all. Not a very easy game to play, and unfortunately there is already too much bureaucracy and regulation. Indeed, I was talking the other day to someone about the future of privatization of space, and if we allow the Federal Aviation Administration to get too far ahead of it all before that industry gets off the ground, then it will never be able all the hopes and dreams of humanity. I think that's why Bert Rutan made a very funny statement, “SpaceShip I, FAA 0” – the day he and his team claimed the X-Prize.

It is my hope that you will please consider all this and think on it.

The Five Major Parts of an Airplane

We tend to think of aircraft as single, uninterrupted units. There are in fact five major parts of an airplane which can be looked at separately. These can be found on almost any model of aircraft out there. The most obvious feature to begin with is the wing. Responsible for holding the craft aloft, it…

We tend to think of aircraft as single, uninterrupted units. There are in fact five major parts of an airplane which can be looked at separately. These can be found on almost any model of aircraft out there.

The most obvious feature to begin with is the wing. Responsible for holding the craft aloft, it is also where the vast majority of fuel is stored during flights. Without the wing, you would have a mission instead. Wings are absolutely necessary for the kind of flight that planes do.

A wing is not much good without the craft can be propelled forward. To this end the second main component would be the engine. These are high performance gas combustors for the most part, and the need to operate them at high output levels for extended periods of time means that they are meant to favor reliability over power.

The tail section is very important. Much of the stability and ability to maneuver comes from the tail surfaces. Without a tail an aircraft quickly becomes impossible to handle in the air and will be at an inevitable risk of crashing.

The main body of the aircraft is called the fuselage. This is typically where passengers and cargo are placed. The fuselage contains the cabin and the cockpit, and depending on the complexity of the aircraft, which can be pressurized and climate controlled for the comfort of the human beings who are inside.

These are the main elements of a plane. With the wing, tail, engine, and fuselage all in place you almost have all the bits too make your own functional aircraft. Now let's think about how you are going to land this thing, because you are probably going to want to do that at some point.

Landing gear is pretty important. Sure, you can skid an aircraft down a runway on its belly, but you really are not going to make any friends doing that. Airports probably hate it when that happens. So does the FAA. Be courteous and think of their feelings. A nice solid set of landing gear will allow your plane to take off and land without gouging huge scars in the tarmac.

That is the basic information about the configuration of aircraft. There are five major parts of an airplane, and those are them. The wing holds the machine aloft and holds the fuel for the engine. The tail and fuselage describe the main body of the craft and hold cargo or passengers. The landing gear, the final main component, is deployed when the airplane is preparing to arrive at an airstrip.

What Is the Fear of Flying?

The fear of flying is one of the most common fears but one of the least accepted fears. It's socially acceptable to be afraid of spiders or heights, but to be afraid of flying many think just pulling together together bought to do the trick. Most people would think that there's no reason at all…

The fear of flying is one of the most common fears but one of the least accepted fears. It's socially acceptable to be afraid of spiders or heights, but to be afraid of flying many think just pulling together together bought to do the trick.

Most people would think that there's no reason at all to be scared of flying, after all, flying means that you can go on holiday, you can see the world, you can do business abroad so what's the problem? Well there is a problem and a big part of it is the way fearful flyers are valued by the rest of us.

I spend a lot of time trying to help fearful flyers and almost all of them say to me that no-one seems to understand exactly how they feel. If they talk about a turbulent flight, then someone will tell them a story of how they were in 'the bumpiest flight ever.' If a fearful flyer has been on a turbulent flight, then they'll be told a story of a flight where 'even the crew said it was the worst turbulence they'd ever experienced.'

Mention that there was a delay for technical reasons and you'll get a story of when the engine fell off. It's hard to imagine why anyone would think that stories like this could help but there's never a shortage of willing story tellers ready to make things worse. Imagine trying to help a child who's scared of the dark by saying that monsters are much smaller now than when you were young. But this is what fearful flyers have to deal with all the time. Exaggerated stories told to make them feel better.

In reality a fear of flying affects millions of people through the world, being responsible for lost business deals, domestic disruption and broken relationships. Most fearful flyers can avoid thinking about flying by getting on with their daily lives and it hard intrudes, but once the holiday season starts then the constant reminders of flying begin to overload them. Many people have said to me that even the thought of picking up a brochure and looking at holidays makes them feel anxious. And if they have ever had the courage to book a flight then they feel physically sick afterwards.

Amazingly these fears are often hidden from other members of the family or from friends, so from the time of booking to getting home from a holiday they live in a state of permanent worry. It is only when they become tired of concealing how they feel that they start to think of finding a way to address their fears. The years and years on constant worry are hard to change but with persistence and a proper strategy and with support everyone should believe that if they have a fear of flying that it can be overcome. And then dreams become realities.

To overcome a fear of flying a fearful flyers must be ready for a long and sometimes difficult journey but if they can stay focused on the benefits they will be on a path of freedom that had previously had only ever been a dream. And the most encouraging fact of all is that almost everyone who tries to overcome their fear using a proper strategy, actually succeeds.

How the Airbus A380 Came Into Being

The Airbus 380 came into being in 1988 when a gathering of engineers at the aircraft manufacturers Airbus commenced working on a ultra-high capacity airliner. Their aim of the team led by Jean Roeder, was to break the dominance of Boeing in the marketplace and so worked in total confidentiality developing this project for a…

The Airbus 380 came into being in 1988 when a gathering of engineers at the aircraft manufacturers Airbus commenced working on a ultra-high capacity airliner. Their aim of the team led by Jean Roeder, was to break the dominance of Boeing in the marketplace and so worked in total confidentiality developing this project for a super jumbo jet.

In June 1990, Airbus announced the project to the world at the Farnborough Air Show. It had the stated aim of producing 15% lower costs of operating than its rival the Boeing 747-400 and from that, four teams of designers from partner companies got to work designing an aircraft and finally in June 1994, Airbus began working on the extremely large airliner, the A3XX. Considering the various designs that had been created by their teams, including an idea to combine two fuselages from their A340 aircraft which was by far, the largest aircraft Airbus was using at the time.

From there, Airbus started to refine its approach in particular, a 15 to 20% reduction in operating the A3XX compared to its rival Boeing 747-400. This included using a double-decker layout in the design that increased the volume of passengers the A3XX was able to take, compared to the standard single-deck layout that most aircraft had.

Finally in December 2000, the Airbus board launched the program to build the A3XX. Costing 8.8 billion Euros, it was named the A380 which was a break from previous Airbus aircraft which had previously been named from A300 to A340 and the 8 was chosen because the double-deck cross section resembles the number 8 and also to target the Asian countries where the number 8 is considered to be very lucky. To start with the A380 had 50 firm orders from six major airlines from across the world who was interested in using the new super-aircraft.

When the first A380 was completed and finished, the cost of developing the aircraft had grown to 11 billion Euros with 5 A380s built for testing and demonstrations across the world and its first flight took place in January 2005 taking off from Toulouse Blagnac International Airport. Indeed on this maiden flights, chief test pilot Jaques Rosay commented that flying the aircraft had been like 'handling a bicycle'. It then made its maiden test flight at a high altitude airport in Medellin Colombia in January 2006, and then headed to Iqaluit, Nunavut in Canada for Cold weather testing.

The A380 was finally approved by the European Aviation Safety Agency in April 2006 and its maiden flights took place in September 2006, carrying 474 Airbus employees from Toulouse Airport.

Fog: When the Wind Screen Turns White

There are those that have and those that will. The moment when a helicopter pilot finds himself trapped in the fog. It can be one of the scariest moments you will encounter during your career as a helicopter pilot. Unfortunately, fog is a fact of life. Fog is an accumulation of water droplets or ice…

There are those that have and those that will. The moment when a helicopter pilot finds himself trapped in the fog. It can be one of the scariest moments you will encounter during your career as a helicopter pilot. Unfortunately, fog is a fact of life.

Fog is an accumulation of water droplets or ice crystals located and suspended at or near the surface of the Earth. Fog is a type of cloud, however it is differentiated by the fact that it is low-lying and the moisture within the fog is typically generated locally. Fog forms when the temperature of the air near the ground is cooled to the air's dew-point. When reporting visibility in the line item of a PIREP, it is important to differentiate between fog and mist; whereas fog reduces visibility to less than 5/8 of a sentence mile, mist reduces visibility to no less than 5/8 of a statute mile. For the VFR pilot, this type of visibility should be unacceptable. To continue to fly under VFR in this type of visibility is not only dangerous, but exhibits a lack of airman-ship and judgment.

It is incumbent upon certificate holders to ensure that operational policies and procedures not only discourage VFR flight under these, or similar conditions, but prohibit this as well. It would be equally derelict and irresponsible for certificate holders to not have in place, a quality Inadvertent IMC procedure.

Any good Inadvertent IMC program begins with training. Training programs must be designed to produce proficiency not currency. It must be consistent and comprehensive in its content. It must emphasize two key critical components; prevention and recovery.

Prevention begins with a solid understanding of meteorology and the calculus of weather formations. Understanding the components of fog and the conditions under which it is likely to form is critical. Specifically, training should include a familiarization with local weather patterns and the areas conducive to the formation of fog, as well as, an overview of areas of operation and weather patterns that are likely associated with those areas. A complete set of tools and resources should be made available at each base to facilitate pre-flight planning and compliance with flight launch protocols.

Company policies relating flight launch protocol should include clear and conservative weather minimums. Weather minimims should take into account those components under which flight operations will be conducted. For example, night flight minimums should obviously be more restrictive than flights conducted during the day. If night vision devices are used, a separate protocol should be created. Minimum should be consistent with mission requirements and take into account the overall experience level of the pilot pool. It should be noted that company weather minims may be more restrictive than those published in the FAR's, however, they can never be less restrictive.

Creating a link between pilot experience, weather minims, and flight launch protocols can be difficult and complex. Balancing customer requirements, safety protocols, and economics is a challenge. With crew and passenger safety being the top priority, an applicable risk assessment procedure may help alleviate some of those difficult and complex issues.

A risk assessment procedure should be in place to evaluate and analyze all components. This assessment procedure should assist the pilot in determining whether or not launch conditions exist. Simplicity is the key. Complicated risk assessment programs have failed in the past particularly when the applicability of the procedure was in-congruent with the components necessary in determining flight launch decisions.

Risk assessment plans will vary depending on industry standards and requirements, however, all risk assessment procedures should include multi-level decision-making. Multi-level decision-making accomplishes two things. First, it forces communication between crews and managers. Second, it promotes and enforces flight launch protocols.

It is impossible to eliminate all Inadvertent IMC events. Recovery is the second critical program component. It is here where hands-on training is essential. When a pilot “punches in” the only resource available at that point is the training he received. It must be conducted on a regular basis and should be realistic and scenario based. It should be structured sequentially meaning that item one is the first step performed.

Step one should always be to “aviate”. Pilots should accept the fact that they have entered into the IMC. It isinctive to lower the collective and try to maintain VMC. This is dangerous and can have catastrophic results. Gain aircraft control and initiate a clamp to clear all known obstacles. Relax and transition to instrument flying. This is probably the most critical and difficult step for most pilots. Transitioning to the instruments and establishing an instrument scan is imperative. Training in unusual attitude recovery techniques often and on a regular basis will help with the transition phase. When comfortable, begin a turn to the last known area where visual conditions exist. If conditions continue, its time to consider step two.

Step two is to “navigate”. It is at this stage that you should begin to implement your recovery plan created during your pre-flight planning phase. Have frequencies, approach plates, and maps readily available. It would be extremely useful to have some of this information committed to memory. Keep additional tasks to a minimum. This allows the pilot to focus on flying the aircraft. A well prepared and familiar plan of action facilitates a relaxed flight posture. Practice approaches should be encouraged by management. Set a course to your recovery airport and prepare to execute your planned instrument approach.

Step three is to “communicate”. Make contact with the controlling agency and advise them of your status as soon as possible. Remember, you are not filed on an IFR flight plan. Depending on the circumstances, consider declaring and emergency. You are in unfamiliar territory. The focus at this point should be getting the aircraft safely on the ground. Ask for help, they will give it to you. Alert your company base operations as to your situation.

Remember, maintain your focus. Stay calm, relaxed and fight that urge to panic. Rely on your training and do what you were taught. During your time, review scenarios constantly. Learn as much as you can about local weather patterns. Ask questions and listen to the experienced pilots. Inadvertent IMC recovery can be summed up in three simple words: aviate, navigate, and communicate. Good Luck and Good Flying!

Aviation Courses – How to Get Your Private Flying License

I guess what saw me through was my determination to make it, going by my approach of; “if someone can do it, then I can do it better”. Even though I had harbored the dream of flying since I was very little when I got my first toy helicopter, the reality of the intensive training…

I guess what saw me through was my determination to make it, going by my approach of; “if someone can do it, then I can do it better”. Even though I had harbored the dream of flying since I was very little when I got my first toy helicopter, the reality of the intensive training required hit me hard. And at first I was skeptical and many times I contemplated discarding the Aviation courses altogether and saving my money. Now, a licensed private pilot after 45 hours of flying and 26,000 questions, my thoughts are; “who said flying is hard?”

The aviation courses studies call for aggression and enthusiasm, but at first, it is almost as much as you can muster. later on as you start getting right and thick into the scheme of things, then you start taking in the charts, the graphs and the diagrams and you even fall in love with them. Even though I knew that going for aviation courses would call for every bit of my concentration and every bit of discipline that I could muster, sometimes the repeated preflight checks would almost bore me. However, after about eight near death misses, I have now understood the importance of even something as mundane (mind you, mundane only to a pilot) as pre flight checks.

Read from afar, the 45 hours of flying, 25 with the instructor and the others alone that one needs to put in before they can become a pilot seem almost too little. But not when you are up there in the skies. The good thing is that everything unfolds just as you learn it in your aviation courses; at least this is what happened to me. I also realized that to fly, and of course, this means to take off and to land safely, one has to put all doubts aside. Flying really starts within a person's mind and maybe that explains why some people find it hard and fail their exams altogether.

Use of AIP and frequency selection, radiotelephone, meteorology, transmission technique, phraseology, conversion of units, aviation law and many other units all require a level head to muster everything. However as I learn during my aviation courses, a level head alone is not enough. There is a serious need for the best PPL training resource that one can find online, in the libraries, in the school or anywhere. Actually, I think that my training in a private aviation school is what played the largest part in my passing the exams because the instructors gave us everything.

They also encouraged us to seek other resources. The diagrams, the charts and the easy to understand and follow instructions did the trick. Although the training manuals for the aviation courses looked overwhelmedly oversized (3000 pages each), they really were self explanatory, so simplified and so comprehensive, covering even extra details. That, plus the technical support from the instructor is what makes a private training school ideal. Flying is not only about passing the exams, but it is much more than that. It is a passion. I think going for aviation courses was the smartest thing I ever did.

How a Flight Simulator Can Make You a Safer Pilot

A flight simulator can be more than just an enjoyable game for a licensed pilot. Airplane simulators can help you develop ingrained habits to deal with real-world emergencies when they arise. Use the following five techniques with a flight sim to boost your safety and confidence when pilot a real aircraft. # 1. You can…

A flight simulator can be more than just an enjoyable game for a licensed pilot. Airplane simulators can help you develop ingrained habits to deal with real-world emergencies when they arise. Use the following five techniques with a flight sim to boost your safety and confidence when pilot a real aircraft.

# 1. You can use a flight sim to “pre-fly” a route to an unfamiliar airport. As you approach the airport using the simulator you can get a feel for the approach patterns, and how the airport is located to a nearby town, a lake, or other other features. If the simulator you're using is detailed enough, you might experience a strong sense of deja vu when you actually fly to the airport for the first time.

# 2. Pilotage is becoming a lost art in this age of GPS. This is flying without reference to instruments, and prepares you for the day when the GPS suddenly goes on the fritz, and there are no VOR's you can track. With your simulator, choose a destination, plot a compass course, calculate the wind vectors, and see how close you can come to your intended destination using only time and airspeed.

# 3. Use an airplane simulator to practice instrument procedures. If you do not have an IFR license, it's likely that the last time you flew without ground reference was when you were first training for your private pilot license. Being able to control a plane without reference to the ground can save your life if you suddenly find yourself in the clouds, or in a thick layer of smoke from a forest fire. Use a flight simulator to practice choosing two VORs to cross-track to a particular IFR intersection. Then concentrate on maintaining your stick and rudder coordination as you make shallow turns without ground reference.

# 4. Many pilots wait too long in the landing sequence before electing to “go around.” The winds might have shifted, or an animal might have wandered onto a rural runway. By practicing go-arounds on a simulator, you can get the feel for the correct procedures in your aircraft, and establish them as habits. Do you raise the landing gear first, and then the flaps? One or two notches of flaps? How fast can you climb to avoid a 75-foot obstacle at the end of the runway?

# 5. Emergency procedures can be expensive and even a little dangerous to practice in your real aircraft, especially if you're doing low-level engine out procedures. With an airplane simulator, you can choose an airport, close the throttle, and see if you can put the plane “on the numbers.”

Then, set up a simulated cross-country flight. From a common cruising altitude – say 3,000 feet above ground level (AGL) – simulate an engine out situation. How do you set up for the best glide speed? Are there clues as to the wind direction? Choose a potential landing spot and head for it. Can you successfully spiral or glide down to a chosen approach point, and then reach your intent landing spot, or do you overshoot or undershoot? Do the same practice from other flight elevations, such as 2,000 feet or 1,500 feet AGL.

Get an airplane simulator that includes plane similar to the one (s) you fly, and also make sure that it can simulate changing weather conditions. Then use it to keep your flying skills sharp, and develop smooth, established responses to emergency situations. You'll save money, avoid bending your real airplane, and become a safer pilot.

Airplane Fractional Ownership – The Cheapest and Most Hassle Free Way To Own Your Own Plane Today

Have you heard about airplane fractional ownership and interested to learn more? Well you are just one person of a growing number of people looking into this interesting proposition. As airline travel becomes more inconvenient as airline companies and FAA bring in more “security measures”. You now have to turn up to the airport at…

Have you heard about airplane fractional ownership and interested to learn more? Well you are just one person of a growing number of people looking into this interesting proposition.

As airline travel becomes more inconvenient as airline companies and FAA bring in more “security measures”. You now have to turn up to the airport at least 2 hours before your flight and often feel like cattle being herded from pillar to post. It leads to stress and a lot of milling about waiting to board your flight.

Can Air Travel Be Made Easier and Less Stressful?

Well that is where airplane fractional ownership comes into its own. Once you agree to purchase (finance or lease options available) an undivided interest in an aircraft you gain the convenience, access and the time advantages associated with owning your own aircraft but at fraction of the cost and with limited responsibilities.

What Do I Get With Airplane Fractional Ownership?

The companies that offer this service do all the hard work for you such as hiring the pilots, maintaining the planes, they look after the logistics plus ensuring the safety of the craft.

In fact the best companies will have a dedicated owner service team that is assigned to look after your every need or want on each flight.

How Does It All Work?

It all depends on the how big a share you buy in the craft. This will determine how many hours you are allowed to fly in a year. The smallest concern you can buy is typically a 1 / 16th interest. This usually equates to the equivalent of 50 hours flying a year.

The usual course of action is for the companies to charge you only for the occupied flight hours and not for the hours required to deliver the aircraft to your departure location or to return the craft to another airport that they call the “dead head” or ” empty flight “.

What Else Do I Need To Know?

There are no discounts if you buy a larger share. That means if you buy a 1 / 8th share then it will be twice as much as a 1 / 16th share and half the price of a sh share. The larger the size of the share may though come with other additional benefits depending on the company you choose so it is best to shop around.

The majority of companies will request that the minimum flight time will be at least an hour. There is some flexibility built into most plans which does allow for an owner to access flight hours from future years if they go over their present annual allowance.

Airplane Fractional Ownership Means Freedom

Think about it you can schedule your own flights from the comfort and convenience of your own home or office. If you fancy weekend away then you can go online and book it for the time you want (you need to give between a 4-48 hour notice period).

Then a team will work for you to organize pilots and logistics; all you have to do is turn up and go. Airplanes fractional ownership is the cheapest and most hassle free option to owning your very own plane.

Aviation Design

A380 design and Goodrich dual-lane escape slides. Goodrich-developed dual-lane escape slides played an important role in the evacuation interiors certification of the A380. The slides were extra wide and planned farther out from the sides, making them appear less steep. Higher sidewalls and built-in illumination were also added to further reassure the passengers, while also…

A380 design and Goodrich dual-lane escape slides.

Goodrich-developed dual-lane escape slides played an important role in the evacuation interiors certification of the A380. The slides were extra wide and planned farther out from the sides, making them appear less steep. Higher sidewalls and built-in illumination were also added to further reassure the passengers, while also improving the seaworthiness of the slides as liferafts in case an aircraft needed to be ditched at sea.

Computer-based models, an integral part of the aviation design process, were used to demonstrate and prove that final exit and cabin configurations would satisfy the 90-second rule.

Aerostructures design

Weight-reduction initiatives in aviation design include structural modifications such as the use of composite ribs in the wings and also, interior fittings. Operator's items adding to the weight include fuel, oil for the engines and APU, water for the galleys and lavatories, plus waste-tank treatment chemicals, aircraft documents and tool kit, seats, catering and galley plus escape slides and other emergency equipment.

Airbus had to sell the idea of ​​upgrading facilities to airports so that the new aircraft could be accommodated. The high-capacity, high-efficiency of the A380 was to be a solution to the growing congestion, not the cause. The aerostructures design in just the positioning of the doors of the aircraft would contribute to faster turnaround times.

B757 Design Errors

All aviation design is a product if its time. Boeing's main mistake in the 757's design was conceptual: the assumption that fuel prices could only continue to rise. In 1983 a gallon of fuel cost US $ 1.20, but by 1986 it costs just 55 cents: the reduction was almost entirely due to Saudi Arabia's increased output of crude oil. The 757-200 was a product of the 1970s and the fuel crisis that followed the Yom Kippur War. The 757 had been designed for fuel efficiency above all else, but by the time it came to market, fuel economy was just one of a number of important purchase criteria. As a result, Boeing's predicted sales of 1400 757-type aircraft by the early 1990s proved wholly inaccurate and just 332 757s were delivered by 1990.

The 757 had other problems. Airlines felt that that was too big and had unnecessary range. It was a single-aisle aircraft with trans-Atlantic capability. In 1979 USAir publicly complained to Boeing that the 757-200 intended to replace the 727 was now almost as big as its widebody counterpart, the 767-200.