How To Carry Out Navigation Diversions

A large part of anyone's helicopter flight training is spent on teaching Navigation. Navigation is an accepted skill and takes practice. During your skills test you will have to carry out a navigation diversion. Navigation diversions can be the most intimidating part of a License Skills Test (LST) but I am going to show you…

A large part of anyone's helicopter flight training is spent on teaching Navigation. Navigation is an accepted skill and takes practice. During your skills test you will have to carry out a navigation diversion. Navigation diversions can be the most intimidating part of a License Skills Test (LST) but I am going to show you a technique that I use with all of my students and it works extremely well.

I will assume that you are capable of doing normal navigation flight planning and can also hold an altitude and heading during flight.

During the navigation portion of the LST, your examiner will, at some stage, tell you that he wants you to divert to a different destination. One that you have not planned for. There are a few things you must do before you head of blindly on a rough heading.

Before the flight, you will have drawn a LARGE arrow on your chart showing where the wind is coming from and marked the wind speed and direction on this arrow.

You will also have calculated the crosswind component for this wind at 30 degree intervals relative to the helicopter and drawn a table on your chart.

  • Eg 1: If the wind is 15 knots and is on your 12 o'clock, there is no crosswind component and therefore no course correction to make but your ground speed is reduced by 15 knots.
  • Eg 2: If the wind is 15 knots and is on your 1 o'clock, there is a (1/3 airspeed) 5 kt crosswind component (15/3 = 5) and a 5 degree course correction is required. Ground speed is reduced by 10 knots (2/3 airspeed) ((15/3) x 2 = 10).
  • Eg 3: If the wind is 15 knots and is on your 2 o'clock, there is a (2/3 airspeed) 10 kt crosswind component ((15/3) x 2 = 10) and a 10 degree course correction is required . Ground speed is reduced by 5 knots (1/3 airspeed) (15/3 = 5).
  • Eg 4: If the wind is 15 knots and is on your 3 o'clock, there is a (3/3 airspeed) 15 kt crosswind component ((15/3) x 3 = 15) and a 15 degree course correction is required . Ground speed is not affected as there is no head / tail wind.

  1. Pick a point on the ground that you can use as a reference point while you do your planning for the diversion. Fly in a wide circle around this point or fly toward this point if it is further away (while you do your navigation diversion planning). Tell your examiner what you are doing.
  2. Draw a rough line on your chart from an easily identifiable point on your chart (close to your position) to the diversion destination. Measure the distance accurately.
  3. Set your pencil on the line and move it (without changing its direction) over a VOR compass rose. Take a not of the heading on the compass rose. This is a magnetic heading so there will be no requirement to take variation into account. (It may help to have a previously drawn VOR with a larger diameter, drawn on your chart).
  4. Now take a note of the wind direction relative to the helicopter using the large arrow you have drawn on your chart. Use the clock code (30 degree intervals).
  5. Refer to the table you made up before your flight (refer to the examples above). From this table you can see what your ground speed and your course correction are. Calculate the time to get to your destination at the new ground speed and tell your examiner what heading you are going to use and what time you are going to arrive at the destination.
  6. Note any features on the chart that may aid your navigation diversion to the destination.

This may sound like a complicated method for teaching navigation divers but bear in mind that 90% of it is carried out on the ground before the flight and you have actually very little to do during the flight. Further information may be found at My Helicopter Training Blog . This method is the simplest that I have ever used for helicopter flight training and it actually works every time when used correctly.

The JAR Night Qualification Course

Appendix 4 to JAR-FCL 2.125 In Europe, the Joint Aviation Authority (JAA) regulates all training by implementing Joint Aviation Regulations (JAR). JAR Flight Crew Licensing (JAR FCL) is the document that contains all the regulations in relation to training. JAR-FCL 2 is the document that relates to helicopters. After you obtain your Private Pilot's License…

Appendix 4 to JAR-FCL 2.125

In Europe, the Joint Aviation Authority (JAA) regulates all training by implementing Joint Aviation Regulations (JAR). JAR Flight Crew Licensing (JAR FCL) is the document that contains all the regulations in relation to training. JAR-FCL 2 is the document that relates to helicopters.

After you obtain your Private Pilot's License PPL (H), you may want to further your skills and train for a night qualification. You will not be allowed to fly at night without having completed a night qualification course.

The course must be completed within 6 months so make sure you budget accordingly. The course will involve ground school and 15 hours of flying – so it is not cheap.

Appendix 4 to JAR-FCL 2.125 tells us what we need to do. Before starting the night qualification course, you must have completed 100 hours of flight time as pilot of helicopters after the issue of your license. You must have at least 60 hours as pilot in command of helicopters and you must also have completed at least 20 hours of cross country flight.

The Night Qualification Course
The night qualification course consists of ground school covering the theory requirements and also the flight portion covering the flying training. The course must be conducted at a Flight Training Organization (FTO) or (when EASA becomes mandatory and replace JAR in April 2012) an Approved Training Organization (ATO). There is no flight test at the end of the course. On completion of the course the night flying restriction on your pilot's license will be removed.

THEORY

Theory will take at least 5 hours of instruction (actual hours depends on the school you use). Topics covered are:

  • night VMC minima
  • rules regarding airspace control at night and facilities available
  • rules concerning aerodrome ground / runway / landing site / obstruction lighting
  • aircraft navigation lights and collision avoidance rules
  • physiological aspects of night vision and orientation
  • dangers of disorientation at night
  • dangers of weather deterioration at night
  • instrument systems / functions and errors
  • instrument lighting and emergency cockpit lighting systems
  • map marking for use under cockpit lighting
  • practical navigation principles
  • planning and use of safety altitude
  • danger from icing conditions, avoidance and escape manoeuvres

FLYING TRAINING

The flying training is the fun part of the course and consist of 15 hours flying. Of the 15 hours, 10 hours will be flown in the day time simulating flying on instruments and 5 hours shall be flown at night. Of the 5 hours night flying, you will have to complete 5 solo circuits.

The flying training will cover:

  • basic manoeuvres when flying by sole reference to instruments
  • transitions to instrument flight from visual flight
  • recovery from unusual attitudes
  • use of radio navigation aids
  • use of radar assistance
  • night hovering
  • night take-off techniques
  • night circuit technique
  • night approaches
  • engine failures at night
  • hydraulic control failure at night
  • emergency procedures
  • night cross country techniques
  • night solo circuits

Course Completion

On completion of the night qualification course you will be issued with a course completion certificate. The paperwork will be submitted to the relevant Authority of the country where you were issued with your license and you will have the night flying restriction removed from your license. For further information you can refer to Appendix 4 to JAR-FCL 2.125 at any training school or search on the internet or view My Helicopter Blog for information and freebies.

JetBlue Airlines Aircraft Fleet

JetBlue are a new breed of budget airline operating domestic and some limited international routes in the United States of America. Rather than concentrating on having the cheapest airline tickets available, they seek to add value to their offerings in several ways. Company members often travel on flights and hand out tickets to selected travelers…

JetBlue are a new breed of budget airline operating domestic and some limited international routes in the United States of America. Rather than concentrating on having the cheapest airline tickets available, they seek to add value to their offerings in several ways. Company members often travel on flights and hand out tickets to selected travelers during flights and all JetBlue planes have leather covered seats, while their planes offer the best leg room figures and on-board entertainment systems in their sector. To facilitate this, the airline boasts an impressive fleet of modern aircraft. We take a closer look at the airliner types at their disposal.

JetBlue Aircraft Fleet
The Jet Blue Airways fleet boasts a comparatively low average age of six years per aircraft. In order to keep operating, maintenance and training costs to a minimum, JetBlue operate just two types of aircraft, the European built Airbus A320 and the smaller Brazilian built Embraer 190.

The Airbus A320 was the widest fuselage of any competitive single single isle aircraft, so allowing JetBlue an advantage over their domestic competitors in terms of interior space, many of which use the Boeing 737 series of aircraft. They currently have 120 Airbus A320-200 aircraft, each with 150 seats set out in a three-by-three format. The JetBlue website claims that they receive delivery of a new A320 every few weeks, with total number of the type set to reach 202 by 2012.

The airline currently has 45 Embraer 190 aircraft, each with 100 seats in a two-by-two layout format. They also have a further 55 Embraer 190's on order, to be delivered at a rate of 18 aircraft per year over the next few years.

JetBlue Aircraft Naming
It is company tradition to name each new plane incorporated into their fleet, with almost every plane being christened with a name containing the word Blue. Examples of these are tail number N519JB “It had to be Blue”, tail number N524JB “Blue Belle” and tail number N536JB “Blue Jay”. The majority of the JetBlue aircraft names are suggested by company employees, with those whose suggestion is used typically winning a trip to the Airbus Factory in Toulouse, France to take delivery of the plane in question and to fly back home on the plane bearing their name .

JetBlue Airways Tail Designs
Most of the fleet shares one of seven tail fin designs. These are called Dots, Bubbles, Harlequin, Mosaic, Stripes, Plaid and Window Pane. The only aircraft not to display one of the seven standard tail designs is number N655JB which is named “Blue 100”. This has a unique tail design due to it being the 100th Airbus A320 delivered to the company. The name was also decided by JetBlue management, marking it out as the only plane not to be named by an employee.

Thank you for reading our JetBlue article. Look out for our other articles that deal with the airlines' operations, alliances, ticketing options, the routes it operates, the destinations it serves and the general history of the company.

FAA Predicts A Stronger Aviation Industry In The Future

Right now, as a country, we are still struggling to get over the economic slump we have been in and the rest of the world is seeing its own share of hardships as well. As things begin to improve, however, we can start to look toward the future hopeful of the interesting things that are…

Right now, as a country, we are still struggling to get over the economic slump we have been in and the rest of the world is seeing its own share of hardships as well. As things begin to improve, however, we can start to look toward the future hopeful of the interesting things that are to come: scientifically, politically, and economically. Momentous advances in the aviation field, for one, are of great significance.

The Federal Aviation Administration prerequisites that by 2030 we will have an increase of over 50,000 aircraft in the general vehicle fleet, in addition to over 52,000 more pilots. The uptick in hours flown will be approximately 15 million, with the total ending up at 38.9 million mark. With 50 million more industry jobs and $ 3.6 trillion of worldwide gross domestic product likely to be tied into the field, aviation will not be hurting in any department.

Both executive jet charter and commercial services will likely grow and simultaneously reap the benefits of the new technology research and development provides. Safety will be noticeably increased by better navigation systems, more sophisticated collision technology, and a higher standard for those working in the field. Newer, automatic satellite-run air traffic control systems are leaps and bounds better than land-based radar and will allow for much more fine-tuned and safer communication between pilots and air traffic controllers. They will both hold the ability to view radar-like visuals with streaming and highly accurate satellite communicated data. Pilots will be more effectively alerted to other nearby aircraft and which in turn will inevitably buy them more time to maneuver using this technology, referred to as ADS-B (Automatic Departure Surveillance Broadcast).

Noise and air pollution will be lessened, with manufacturers inventing noise reducing technology and Pratt and Whitney constructing an engine with 20% less fuel inefficiency. Engines will soon be cleaner on the whole due to the implementation of various green technologies.

Whether you plan to travel commercially or prefer to charter a jet, aviation is growing by massive amounts, and the future of air transportation is appearing brighter every day. Aviation is a necessary factor in today's economy, for the transportation of items and for many other features of business. By committing more to the future of air travel, we are simultaneously securing the robustness of our own development in numerous ways. We all count on aviation to some degree, and improvements in the industry will likewise improve our lives.

The Future of Aviation Avionics and The Data Deluge Disaster Dilemma

Having the right information while flying an aircraft is the smartest way to go, as that information can help make critical decisions needed for a proper cushion of safety. However, what happens when there is too much information, or when the information coming in is not the right information or exact information due due to…

Having the right information while flying an aircraft is the smartest way to go, as that information can help make critical decisions needed for a proper cushion of safety. However, what happens when there is too much information, or when the information coming in is not the right information or exact information due due to a slight time delay. Okay so, you can see why this recently became a think tank topic, and why fellow think tanker, Troy Laclaire, and I set out to address this.

You see, there has been an incredible leap in avionics technology in the last decade, so much so, as it makes almost all the old technology completely obsolete. Consider if you will the robust, sexy, and incredible technology now available in the Garmin GTN 650 and GTN 750 for communication, navigation, and pertinent aviation information. The system is really a cut above, and yet one has to ask if it has so much information as to be somewhat distracting to the pilots.

Troy noted that, the system could become a distraction, and yet, I must say folding out sectional charts on your lap, and fuddling through Jeppesen binders is not exactly a non-distraction either, which is what I basically had to do while flying as a young teenager, while learning. Neverheless, Troy's comments are well taken, just as those points of contention against TV, DVD, and video players in the center console of your automobile.

Okay so, yes, this is also one of my concerns, that, information overload versus what's really needed is important, also the speed of the aircraft matters because faster planes, their pilots must be thinking ahead, as in where they are going and what the situation will be when they get there so they can calculate fuel and options, and alternate airport choices.

Garmin is busy selling these units to owners of private jets, and general aviation and these units are already being marketed, sold and installed all over the world. These are hot items, lots of upgrades from previous versions, way ahead of Loran and others. Further, I'd say it adds a lot of safety to general aviation, which can always use better systems, and more relevant data to help pilots. Troy stated; “If all information is being obtained remotely via satellite, this could cause potential issues if the satellite ever went down.”

Yes, or at least the last known data, but that might also give a false sense of security? I know satellite radio is 5-10 seconds so you can drive under bridges and partly through tunnels without losing a signal. Troy stated that in a perfect world, he'd “like to see a backup, ground based system to augment / take over in the event of a satellite failure. junkitting the satellite.

Yes, well this system is an alternate system to all the avionics and systems already available and now in use. So, in essence it is a secondary system, although it makes the first system obsolete in many regards. Now then, the data in these Garmin units which is for airport information, it too needs to be upgraded often, just as Jeppessen Binder pages are. Troy wonders if it makes sense that one pilot on board knows the route and airport from previous experience.

Well, indeed, of course, that can not always happen in private jet charter, or in general aviation. “That is a problem, however I would think it should be more feasible for airlines with set routes,” states Troy. Sure he's correct, and you could have the pilots of airliners fly into all the airports in the simulator prior to any actual flight, the military most likely does this now for its missions too. Of course, by the time someone gets to be pilot in command of an Airliner aircraft they've been to all the airports anyway so many times, as a co-pilot and second officer, all the extra regulations of this type are simply not necessary for the airlines.

Still, having all that data, information, and the Garmin systems around sure make flying a lot safer, and easier, as long as a pilot does not get too involved in the data, and does not fly the aircraft first. Indeed, I hope you will please consider all this.

Real Flight Simulator – How NOT To Crash Your Aircraft

“Any landing that you can walk away from is a good landing.” – Popular Aviation Proverb Well, your flight instructor might not think so. Learning how to fly an airplane requires an intense program that not only understands actually sitting in the cockpit and manning the flight controls, but also rigorous classroom study. A truly…

“Any landing that you can walk away from is a good landing.”
– Popular Aviation Proverb

Well, your flight instructor might not think so. Learning how to fly an airplane requires an intense program that not only understands actually sitting in the cockpit and manning the flight controls, but also rigorous classroom study.

A truly competent pilot has a comprehensive understanding of the laws of aerodynamics and a working knowledge of the technical mechanics about how aircraft actually flies, and how it behaves under various flight configurations and environmental conditions. It's not like getting your driver's license, where you do not need to actually understand what makes the engine run, what makes the axles of the tires actually rotate.

But it is when you get in the cockpit and take the controls of an aircraft that you become responsible for the safe operation of that aircraft at all times. And that means you need to know:

  • How to keep the aircraft's angle of attack with respect the flow of air, engine performance, gross weight, center of gravity, and structural load (eg G-forces), all within safe operating limits.
  • How to respond to aircraft emergencies such as running out of fuel, engine fires, electrical failures, bird strikes, and collision avoidance.
  • How to interpret data from the flight instruments, and how to respond to instrument failure as well as communications and navigation instrument failure.
  • How to find your way safely to an airport or back on your intended course if you ever get lost.
  • How to handle aircraft in adverse weather conditions such as rain, wind, snow, lightning, and clouds.

The Federal Aviation Administration requires all student pilots to accumulate a minimum of 40 hours of flight instruction in the cockpit from a certified flying instructor as a prerequisite for taking the final check ride to earn your pilot's license.

There is a LOT of material you need to cover during each flight lesson with the instructor:

  • Takeoffs
  • climbs
  • descents
  • standard turns
  • steep turns
  • stalls
  • slow flight
  • landings
  • S turns
  • turns about a point
  • spins
  • emergency landings
  • navigation by instruments
  • navigation by pilotage
  • navigation by dead reckoning
  • short field / soft field take offs and landings

You may think you do not need to master many of these techniques in order to know how to fly an airplane. After all, it's not like you are ever going to do a steep turn, a spin, intentally stop the plane, or intentally go into slow flight. But the purpose of mastering these maneuvers is to help you develop a rapport with the controllability and flight aerodynamics of the plane, in various flight configurations, at various altitudes, under different weather conditions, and lighting conditions.

Is 40 hours of training sufficient to become proficient?

Some might feel that 40 hours in an aircraft is simply not enough to become proficient enough to get your license, let alone to even go on your first solo flight.

That's why some people say that when you get your pilot's license, you are not really getting a license to fly, so much as you are actually getting your license to learn.

And that is where a real flight simulator would come in handy. 40 hours of flight training is just the bare minimum. But if the cost of the training prohibits you from spending too much money and time on additional training, then using a real flight simulator can help you spend additional hours practicing all of the various flight maneuvers and scenarios.

In fact, using a real flight simulator is a true win / win scenario, because the more time you spend practicing, whether in a real aircraft or with a simulator, the more proficient you will become as a pilot.

So if you want to know how NOT to crash your airplane, the answer is to practice, practice, practice. Practice emergencies as well. While you do receive simulated emergency training in a real aircraft, one of the things that a real flight simulator is good for is practicing various simulated scenarios:

  • You can cut the engines.
  • You can set the engine on fire.
  • You can simulate hurricane-force winds.
  • You can simulate a thunderstorm.
  • You can set the simulator so that you have run out of gas.

Indeed, a real flight simulator can help you learn how not to crash your aircraft and make you a better, more competent safety pilot.

Helicopter Daily Preflight Check

When you are learning how to fly a helicopter, one of the first things you are taught is how to do a helicopter daily preflight check. As a helicopter instructor, I can not over-emphasize the importance of this check. One day, this check could save your life. When you are learning to fly a new…

When you are learning how to fly a helicopter, one of the first things you are taught is how to do a helicopter daily preflight check. As a helicopter instructor, I can not over-emphasize the importance of this check. One day, this check could save your life.

When you are learning to fly a new type of helicopter, your instructor will normally spend about one hour showing you how to perform this check. You will eventually reduce this time to about 10 to 15 minutes with practice. You will be shown how to use the check list and where to find all items on the list. Always use the check list for the preflight check.

Complacency is one of the most important things to be aware of when conducting your checks. Complacency will eventually lead to you missing or skipping items on your list. Distractions during your preflight checks are a common reason for missing items on the check list. Answering telephone calls during the preflight can distract you. I turn my telephone onto silent and return any calls when I have completed the checks. If my helicopter daily preflight check is interrupted for some reason, I go back to the start of that section in my check list to ensure that I do not miss any items.

Take your time doing your preflight as rushing it will lead to mistakes. A few years ago I watched a pilot do a helicopter daily preflight check on a Bell 206 Jetranger. As he progressed around the helicopter he had a telephone glued to his ear and I knew he was not doing a thorough check. I heard him start the helicopter and then I heard the helicopter shut down about 30 seconds later. Approximately 5 minutes after that, he arrived into my office and asked me to come out to the helicopter as he had a problem. I did so. His problem was that after start-up he noticed a red on the Turbine Outlet Temperature (TOT) gauge and it did not extinguish on shut down. I informed him that he had over-temped the engine on start-up and he emphatically denied this. When I pointed out that this was the only reason that the light could be illuminated, he actually conceded that he may not have been looking at the gauge during start-up. This is a cardinal sin on this type of helicopter. Because he could not tell the engineers what temperature the engine went up to and for how long, the engine had to be removed and sent to Rolls Royce for inspection. The subsequent bill came to almost 60,000 euro. He was lucky that his distraction only cost him money and not his life.

Use your instructor wisely. Pick his / her brains and find out where all of the items are on the helicopter. When a helicopter is in for maintenance, ask if the engineer will let you see it with the panels removed. Better still, ask the engineer to show you the helicopter and let him show you what he looks for during a helicopter daily preflight check. You will never stop learning and you can never know enough. Use the internet to find more information (be careful of the sources) and check out my weblog at http://helicopterblog.com .

How the Airbus A380 Came Into Being

The Airbus 380 came into being in 1988 when a gathering of engineers at the aircraft manufacturers Airbus commenced working on a ultra-high capacity airliner. Their aim of the team led by Jean Roeder, was to break the dominance of Boeing in the marketplace and so worked in total confidentiality developing this project for a…

The Airbus 380 came into being in 1988 when a gathering of engineers at the aircraft manufacturers Airbus commenced working on a ultra-high capacity airliner. Their aim of the team led by Jean Roeder, was to break the dominance of Boeing in the marketplace and so worked in total confidentiality developing this project for a super jumbo jet.

In June 1990, Airbus announced the project to the world at the Farnborough Air Show. It had the stated aim of producing 15% lower costs of operating than its rival the Boeing 747-400 and from that, four teams of designers from partner companies got to work designing an aircraft and finally in June 1994, Airbus began working on the extremely large airliner, the A3XX. Considering the various designs that had been created by their teams, including an idea to combine two fuselages from their A340 aircraft which was by far, the largest aircraft Airbus was using at the time.

From there, Airbus started to refine its approach in particular, a 15 to 20% reduction in operating the A3XX compared to its rival Boeing 747-400. This included using a double-decker layout in the design that increased the volume of passengers the A3XX was able to take, compared to the standard single-deck layout that most aircraft had.

Finally in December 2000, the Airbus board launched the program to build the A3XX. Costing 8.8 billion Euros, it was named the A380 which was a break from previous Airbus aircraft which had previously been named from A300 to A340 and the 8 was chosen because the double-deck cross section resembles the number 8 and also to target the Asian countries where the number 8 is considered to be very lucky. To start with the A380 had 50 firm orders from six major airlines from across the world who was interested in using the new super-aircraft.

When the first A380 was completed and finished, the cost of developing the aircraft had grown to 11 billion Euros with 5 A380s built for testing and demonstrations across the world and its first flight took place in January 2005 taking off from Toulouse Blagnac International Airport. Indeed on this maiden flights, chief test pilot Jaques Rosay commented that flying the aircraft had been like 'handling a bicycle'. It then made its maiden test flight at a high altitude airport in Medellin Colombia in January 2006, and then headed to Iqaluit, Nunavut in Canada for Cold weather testing.

The A380 was finally approved by the European Aviation Safety Agency in April 2006 and its maiden flights took place in September 2006, carrying 474 Airbus employees from Toulouse Airport.

What Is the Fear of Flying?

The fear of flying is one of the most common fears but one of the least accepted fears. It's socially acceptable to be afraid of spiders or heights, but to be afraid of flying many think just pulling together together bought to do the trick. Most people would think that there's no reason at all…

The fear of flying is one of the most common fears but one of the least accepted fears. It's socially acceptable to be afraid of spiders or heights, but to be afraid of flying many think just pulling together together bought to do the trick.

Most people would think that there's no reason at all to be scared of flying, after all, flying means that you can go on holiday, you can see the world, you can do business abroad so what's the problem? Well there is a problem and a big part of it is the way fearful flyers are valued by the rest of us.

I spend a lot of time trying to help fearful flyers and almost all of them say to me that no-one seems to understand exactly how they feel. If they talk about a turbulent flight, then someone will tell them a story of how they were in 'the bumpiest flight ever.' If a fearful flyer has been on a turbulent flight, then they'll be told a story of a flight where 'even the crew said it was the worst turbulence they'd ever experienced.'

Mention that there was a delay for technical reasons and you'll get a story of when the engine fell off. It's hard to imagine why anyone would think that stories like this could help but there's never a shortage of willing story tellers ready to make things worse. Imagine trying to help a child who's scared of the dark by saying that monsters are much smaller now than when you were young. But this is what fearful flyers have to deal with all the time. Exaggerated stories told to make them feel better.

In reality a fear of flying affects millions of people through the world, being responsible for lost business deals, domestic disruption and broken relationships. Most fearful flyers can avoid thinking about flying by getting on with their daily lives and it hard intrudes, but once the holiday season starts then the constant reminders of flying begin to overload them. Many people have said to me that even the thought of picking up a brochure and looking at holidays makes them feel anxious. And if they have ever had the courage to book a flight then they feel physically sick afterwards.

Amazingly these fears are often hidden from other members of the family or from friends, so from the time of booking to getting home from a holiday they live in a state of permanent worry. It is only when they become tired of concealing how they feel that they start to think of finding a way to address their fears. The years and years on constant worry are hard to change but with persistence and a proper strategy and with support everyone should believe that if they have a fear of flying that it can be overcome. And then dreams become realities.

To overcome a fear of flying a fearful flyers must be ready for a long and sometimes difficult journey but if they can stay focused on the benefits they will be on a path of freedom that had previously had only ever been a dream. And the most encouraging fact of all is that almost everyone who tries to overcome their fear using a proper strategy, actually succeeds.

The Five Major Parts of an Airplane

We tend to think of aircraft as single, uninterrupted units. There are in fact five major parts of an airplane which can be looked at separately. These can be found on almost any model of aircraft out there. The most obvious feature to begin with is the wing. Responsible for holding the craft aloft, it…

We tend to think of aircraft as single, uninterrupted units. There are in fact five major parts of an airplane which can be looked at separately. These can be found on almost any model of aircraft out there.

The most obvious feature to begin with is the wing. Responsible for holding the craft aloft, it is also where the vast majority of fuel is stored during flights. Without the wing, you would have a mission instead. Wings are absolutely necessary for the kind of flight that planes do.

A wing is not much good without the craft can be propelled forward. To this end the second main component would be the engine. These are high performance gas combustors for the most part, and the need to operate them at high output levels for extended periods of time means that they are meant to favor reliability over power.

The tail section is very important. Much of the stability and ability to maneuver comes from the tail surfaces. Without a tail an aircraft quickly becomes impossible to handle in the air and will be at an inevitable risk of crashing.

The main body of the aircraft is called the fuselage. This is typically where passengers and cargo are placed. The fuselage contains the cabin and the cockpit, and depending on the complexity of the aircraft, which can be pressurized and climate controlled for the comfort of the human beings who are inside.

These are the main elements of a plane. With the wing, tail, engine, and fuselage all in place you almost have all the bits too make your own functional aircraft. Now let's think about how you are going to land this thing, because you are probably going to want to do that at some point.

Landing gear is pretty important. Sure, you can skid an aircraft down a runway on its belly, but you really are not going to make any friends doing that. Airports probably hate it when that happens. So does the FAA. Be courteous and think of their feelings. A nice solid set of landing gear will allow your plane to take off and land without gouging huge scars in the tarmac.

That is the basic information about the configuration of aircraft. There are five major parts of an airplane, and those are them. The wing holds the machine aloft and holds the fuel for the engine. The tail and fuselage describe the main body of the craft and hold cargo or passengers. The landing gear, the final main component, is deployed when the airplane is preparing to arrive at an airstrip.