How Long Does it Take to Wash a Small Cessna Aircraft – Airplane Cleaning 101

Many people are still out of work, and the other day when I was in Wichita, KS I did note that the general aviation manufacturing capital of the world was hurting pretty bad still. When discussing this with a local at Starbucks there, he stated he'd been laid off for quite some time. It seems…

Many people are still out of work, and the other day when I was in Wichita, KS I did note that the general aviation manufacturing capital of the world was hurting pretty bad still. When discussing this with a local at Starbucks there, he stated he'd been laid off for quite some time. It seems that President Obama made some derogatory remarks about CEOs flying around corporate jets, and literally over night used corporate jet aircraft sales tanked even worse than before, and corporate jet orders just stopped like they hit a brick wall.

We got to talking, mostly hangar talk, airplanes and flying stories, he said he'd like to start an aviation type business but did not know what he should do. Since, I'd previously built up a rather nice aircraft cleaning business, he asked; “How Long Does it Take to Wash a Small Cessna Aircraft, or similar plane?”

Good question and my answer was this. For exterior washing, one person with a 5.0 hp pressure washer can clean, remove bugs, clean windscreen, and degrease the belly of a C-152 in about 15-20 minutes if it is washed weekly. A Corvalis a few minutes faster since it is a low wing, but not much faster because it is a four-seater.

For interiors, well it matters if it is a private owner's plane, or a rental. Interiors for Flight School, Clubs, and FBO aircraft take longer due to the number of flights and people who do not own the aircraft flying it. Private owners quite quickly, as you can use a quick dust buster portable, wipe down the dash, detail out the instrument panel and pump-spray bottle the doors and interior plastic, leather and vinyl.

Indeed, I'd say 5-minutes, a little longer than a car due to the tight quarters and difficulty moving around inside. Add an additional 5-minutes for flight school aircraft, they really get messy, especially as food items get between the seat tracks and things like that.

The big money in cleaning aircraft really is the corporate jet market, but until things drastically improve, I mentioned he'd have a tough go of it. But he could still do well detailing light aircraft, single engine jobs, as not all aircraft owners were in tough times, it really depends on where their money is coming from and the type of business they are in. “Aircraft washing is hard work,” I said “make no mistake about that.” If you are considering starting an aircraft cleaning service, sometimes you will consider all this.

Piper Cheyenne – The Largest Aircraft Built by Piper Aircraft Inc

Piper Aircraft Inc. is one of the well-known aircraft manufacturers to date. The company has been able to produce several models of single as well as twin engine aircraft. To be precise, they manufactured 160 models of aircraft, thereby releasing a total of 144,000 units. Of particular prowess is the Piper Cheyenne, which was first…

Piper Aircraft Inc. is one of the well-known aircraft manufacturers to date. The company has been able to produce several models of single as well as twin engine aircraft. To be precise, they manufactured 160 models of aircraft, thereby releasing a total of 144,000 units. Of particular prowess is the Piper Cheyenne, which was first introduced to the market in 1969.

The Piper Cheyenne, or PA-31 aircraft, was specifically noted for its turboprop design and corporate styling. It instantly became a hit in business circles, and served as one of the primary sources of private business travel for executives. The aircraft had the power and class to take passengers around in style and comfort, which certainly contributed to its popularity – even today.

Although the first prototype flew in 1969 as a turboprop version of the pressurized Navajo, the original Cheyenne was produced between 1974 and 1977. In 1978, the Cheyenne I was introduced to the market as a low cost turboprop model that catered to Piper loyalists who wanted to fly one, one way or another. The Cheyenne I was definitely the most affordable model ever produced in this line. The Cheyenne I was actually the first variant of the Piper Cheyenne, but it was much slower than the original Cheyenne, which later became known as the Piper Cheyenne II.

Other variations of the Piper Cheyenne include the Cheyenne III, Cheyenne IIIA and Cheyenne IV. There is also a Cheyenne IIXL, which is a stretched version of the Cheyenne II, and comes with two more feet of fuselage space. Therefore, passengers had a much more comfortable ride thanks to the additional room.

Today, the Cheyenne 400 is the largest aircraft built by Piper, and only 45 units of this model were manufactured. It went back into the factory short after initial release, and was reintroduced to the market in 1974. It lasts to sell well however is very hard to come by because such a small number was originally manufactured.

This 6 to 8 passenger turboprop aircraft has a very high resale value. If you happen to be looking for a Piper Cheyenne aircraft for your business and corporate flights, then you can definitely consider the Piper Cheyenne IV as your aircraft of choice. Not only is it powerful and sturdy, but also roomy, allowing you to have comfortable travel for the duration of your flight. It is quite an attractive turboprop aircraft that can easily be considered as part of the jet family introduced by Piper Aircraft Inc.

Aircraft Electric Motors

Aircraft DC motors DC electric motors are the inverse of the DC generator. They combine armature field windings and commutator / brushgear and are similarly self excited. The main elements of importance in relation to motors are the speed and torque characteristics, ie the variations of speed and torque with load respectively. Motors are categorized…

Aircraft DC motors

DC electric motors are the inverse of the DC generator. They combine armature field windings and commutator / brushgear and are similarly self excited. The main elements of importance in relation to motors are the speed and torque characteristics, ie the variations of speed and torque with load respectively. Motors are categorized by their field winding configuration (as for generators) and typical examples are series-wound electric motors, shunt-wound electric motors and compound-wound (a combination of series- and shunt-wound). Each of these types of motor offers different performance performance characteristics that may be matched to the application for which they are intended.

A specialized form of series motor is the split-field motor where two sets of series windings of opposite polarity are each used in series with the armature but parallel with each other.

Either one set of field windings or the other may receive power at any one time and therefore the motor may run bi-directionally depending upon which winding is energized. When used in conjunction with suitable switches or relays this type of motor is particularly useful for powering loads such as fuel system valves where there may be a requirement to change the position of various valves several times during flight. Limit switches at the end of the actuator travel prevent the motor / actuator from overrunning once the desired position has been reached. Split-field motors are commonly used for linear and rotary position actuators when used in conjunction with the necessary position feedback control. DC motors are most likely to be used for linear and rotary aerospace actuators, fuel valve actuation and starter functions.

Aircraft AC motors

Aircraft AC motors are most commonly the `induction motor 'type. Induction motors operate upon the principle that a rotating magnetic field is set up by the AC field current provided to two or more stator windings (usually three-phase). A simple rotor, sometimes called a `squirrel cage ', will rotate under the effects of this rotating magnetic field without the need for brushgear or slip rings; the motor is therefore simple in construction and reliable. The speed of rotation of induction motors depends upon the frequency of the applied voltage and the number of pairs of poles used. The advantage of the induction motor for airborne uses is that there is always a source of constant frequency AC power available and for constant rated applications it offers a very cost-effective solution. Single-phase induction motors also exist, however these require a second set of phase windings to be switched in during the start phase, as single phase windings can purely sustain and not start synchronous running.

AC motors are most likely to be used for continuous operation, ie those applications where motors are continuously operating during flight, such as fuel booster pumps, flight instrument gyroscopes and air-conditioning cooling fans.

Considerations Regarding Helicopter Fire Fighting

Helicopters may not look as innovative as compared to other aircraft such as shuttles and jets but for fire fighting purpose, they are the most efficient aerial way for rescue missions. Helicopter fire fighting is seen as the best way to fight against anyurgency in rescue missions. Whatever it is a government body, any other…

Helicopters may not look as innovative as compared to other aircraft such as shuttles and jets but for fire fighting purpose, they are the most efficient aerial way for rescue missions. Helicopter fire fighting is seen as the best way to fight against anyurgency in rescue missions. Whatever it is a government body, any other administration or some military organization, helicopters play an integral part in all of these organizations.

Fire fighting in big areas such as terrorist attacks and forest fires are the important tasks a helicopter carrier out brilliantly. In such cases, destruction occurs at larger scales and without effective & quick disaster management techniques, the situation may get worsened.

One of the efficient ways used by chopper is proper use of water bucket to put off fire. A water bucket is a movable bucket-like structure that is hung below helicopter with cargo hooks. Once emptied, this bucket can be refilled from near lake or pond and used again and again. This technique cats brilliantly in times of crisis.

Some Helicopters also use the Bambi bucket which is a bit more advanced as compared to water bucket. Beside water, helicopters also use water enhancers and chemicals such as gels, foams and some formulated fire retardants. These chemicals are specifically made for fire fighting purposes. The foam which is added to these water buckets has concentration levels of 0.5% to 1.0% as per the requirement and need of the situation. Foam tanks need power pumps to operate, though they look like common water tanks.

Helicopter work best when use to survey an entire area & keeping keeping contact with ground personnel to carry out the fire fighting procedure in an outstanding and fruitful way.

A helicopter starts controlling fire at the heel and then continues along the sides ie towards that area where fire is heading. ' Heel 'stands for the starting point of fire from where fire had originated. A helicopter's pilot also takes into account the direction of the wind because it can cause a damaging effect to an enemy fire fighting procedure.

Cheap Flights – How to Find Them

Those who would like to travel and save as much money as they can when traveling would opt to obtain cheap flights available. If you are wondering where to get cheap airline tickets to wherever you are traveling to you should consider searching for options online because you may just get cheaper airfare from these…

Those who would like to travel and save as much money as they can when traveling would opt to obtain cheap flights available. If you are wondering where to get cheap airline tickets to wherever you are traveling to you should consider searching for options online because you may just get cheaper airfare from these online providers.

Getting cheap flight tickets online will allow you not only to save money from additional fees for paper processing but it will also save you time from looking elsewhere. Just imagine being able to get access to various options what at a time in a single click of your mouse, is not that convenient at all?

Now, if you consider to book cheap flights online you will be able to compare the best airfare available for you to take advantage of. Try to do some research on the route available and then seek for affordable rates available for that particular route. From here you will be able to choose which fight will best suit you and your budget.

In booking for your travel you should as well consider possible exemptions like for instance if you are traveling together with a 2-year old child, the child would then be able to travel with you for free. You have to consider that because, if you will be buying a separate seat for a qualified child, that would definitely cost you more.

Finding cheap flight tickets also depends on when you will be booking a travel period. If you will be traveling on off-season periods then you can definitely save more money in doing so. So before booking a flight you may want to ask the ticket provider if they have certain discounts for these periods and you may take advantage of it for a cheaper traveling option.

It is very important that you do a lot of research to find the best cheaper deals when it comes to getting cheap airline tickets. It is obvious that you will need to decide on this but do not leave the option of having to compare several ticket providers just so you can get a more affordable travel deal that suits your traveling budget.

For Aviation Buffs Only – Learn How to Fly

If you're a fan of flying, then it's no wonder that you would try to collect and read everything that you can put your hands on regarding aviation. You probably even have loads of aviation shirts in your closet. That's perfectly fine, because after all, flying is always fascinating no matter how many times you've…

If you're a fan of flying, then it's no wonder that you would try to collect and read everything that you can put your hands on regarding aviation. You probably even have loads of aviation shirts in your closet. That's perfectly fine, because after all, flying is always fascinating no matter how many times you've seen an airplane fly or have a ridden in one.

And you've probably considered flying an airplane yourself. As a licensed pilot, you will be able to fly your own airplane and you could travel almost anywhere in the world with just you and your plane. But before anything else, you need to enroll at an aviation school first. Below are some tips that will help you reach your ultimate goal – flying a plane.

First of all, determine how much you're willing to spend on learning how to fly. The reason for this is that the money that you allocate will ultimately determine how long you can learn how to fly, your choice of instructor and planes.

Another thing is that you have to try to find out what kind of flying you want to do. Do you want to be a private pilot, a recreational one? The type of flying you want to do will also determine the number of hours you need to invest in learning how to fly an aircraft as well as the type of certificate you'll receive.

Once you have answered those important questions, you can now look for a flight school. If you live in North America, you'll most likely find several flight schools within your area. Not sure about it? There are ways to go about it. You can check your local yellow pages, or you could also use online resources. There are tons of websites out there that help you quickly search for a flight school in your area.

Depending on the flight school you're enrolled in, you can choose the plane that you wish to fly and the instructor who will teach you. Choosing a particular plane to fly is good if you already have an airplane, or if you wish to focus on flying a particular type of plane. Choosing an instructor is also helpful if you're after a special teaching style or wish to work with someone you're comfortable with.

Also remember to get yourself a student pilot certificate. Learning how to fly is a lot like driving, and because of that, you need a student permit before you can even take off on your first flight. So get yourself one before enrollment. You could also consult your flight instructor on how to go about getting one.

All in all, learning how to fly is the best decision you will ever make if you are really into aviation. Doing so takes you to another level that's literal higher than just collecting aviation t-shirts and model airplanes. For most people who learn how to fly, it's the realization of a longtime dream. You, too, can achieve that as well.

The Airbus A-310

Seeking to complement its original, although larger-capacity, A-300 on thinner sectors with a low-cost, minimally redesigned counterpart and thus expand its product range, Airbus Industrie explored a shorter-fuselage version designated “A-310.” A consortium of European aircraft manufacturers headquartered in Toulouse, France, Airbus Industrie itself had arisen because the design and marketing of an advanced, widebody…

Seeking to complement its original, although larger-capacity, A-300 on thinner sectors with a low-cost, minimally redesigned counterpart and thus expand its product range, Airbus Industrie explored a shorter-fuselage version designated “A-310.”

A consortium of European aircraft manufacturers headquartered in Toulouse, France, Airbus Industrie itself had arisen because the design and marketing of an advanced, widebody airliner had exempted the financial strength of any single, Europe-based company, the principle ones of which had included de Havilland with the DH.106 Comet, Vickers with the VC-10, Hawker Siddeley with the HS.121 Trident, and the British Aircraft Corporation with the BAC-111 in the United Kingdom, and Sud-Aviation with the SE.210 Caravelle and Dassault-Breguet with the Mercure 100 in France.

The A-300, its first joint design, not only signaled its launch as an aircraft manufacturer, but that of the aircraft itself and the concept it represented-a large-capacity, widebody, twin-engined “airbus.” Intended to compete with Boeing, and particularly with its still-envisioned 767, it provided a non-US alternative to continental carriers and a foundation on which a European commercial product range could be built, offering the first serious challenge to both Boeing and McDonnell- Douglas.

Intended for short- to medium-range, reliably high-capacity deployment, the aircraft featured a widebody fuselage mated to two high bypass ratio turbofans which threaten capacity and reliability, coupled with a high-lift wing, had served as the key elements of its design.

Obviating the need for a third powerplant characteristic of the 727, the DC-10, and the L-1011, the twin-engine configuration yielded numerous economic benefits, including the reduction of structural and gross weights, the reduction of maintenance costs, the elimination of the additionally required fuel lines, the introduction of structural simplicity, and the reduction of seat-mile costs.

Aerodynamically, the twin-engine design also addressed in several advantages. The wings, mounted further forward than feasible by a tri-engine configuration, increased the moment-arm between the pylon-slung turbofans / center-of gravity and its tail, thus requiring smaller horizontal and vertical stabilizers to maintain longitudinal and yaw-axis control and indirectly reducing structural weight and drag, yet maintaining certifiable control during single-engine loss, asymmetrical constant conditions.

Designed by the Hawker Siddeley team in Hatfield, the 28-degree sweptback, supercritical wing, built up of a forward and rear full and mid half-spar, produced the greater portion of its lift over its aft portion, delaying shock wave formation and reducing drag.

Low-speed lift was augmented by full-span, engine pylon-uninterrupted leading edge slats, which increased the aircraft's take off weight capacity by some 2,000 pounds, and tabbed, trailing edge Fowler flaps, which extended to 70 percent of their travel before rotating into camber-increasing profiles, resulting in a 25-percent larger chord.

Part of the reason for engine reliability had been the auxiliary power unit's integration into the main electric, air conditioning, and starting systems, providing immediate back-up in the event of engine failure at altitudes as high as 30,000 feet.

The A-300's widebody fuselage provided the same degree of twin-aisle comfort and loading capacity of standard LD3 baggage and cargo containers as featured by the quad-engined 747 and the tri-engined DC-10 and L-1011.

Seeking to build upon these design strengths, yet decrease passenger capacity with a foreshortened fuselage and expand its market application, Airbus Industrie conceptionally studied and proposed nine potential aircraft vary in capacity, range, and powerplant number and designated A-300B1 to -9 based upon the initial A-300 platform.

It was the tenth, however-designated A-300B10-which most optimally catered to carriers' needs for a 200-passenger airliner for segments with insufficient demand to support its larger counterpart and for those which merited additional frequencies, such as during off-peak times. Other than the original original prototype A-300B1s and the three-frame longer A-300B2, the aircraft had only offered a single basic fuselage length, which capacity partially credited for initially sluggish sales.

Although a low-cost A-300B10MC “Minimal Change” entailed mating a shorter fuselage with the existing wing, powerplants, and tailplane would have provided few engineering obstacles, it would have resolved in an aircraft proportionally too small and heavy for the A-300's original surfaces. After a lower structural weight, it would have offered insufficient internal volume for revenue-generating passenger, cargo, and mail payload to eclipse its direct operating costs (DOC).

Balancing both the superior performance and the minimized development cost sides of the program's equation, Airbus Industrie considered two possible approaches:

1). The A-300B10X, which employed a new wing designed by the since-amalgamated British Aerospace in Hatfield with smaller leading and trailing edge, high-lift devices.

2). The A-300B10Y, which utilized the existing A-300 wing box, with some configurations.

Lufthansa, the envisioned launch customer, strongly advocated the former approach, because of the reduced costs associated with a redesigned, more advanced airfoil, and, together with Swissair, which equally contemplated an order for the type, detailed performance specifications. Placing deposits for 16 A-300B10s, which were currently redesignated “A-310s,” in July of 1978, both airlines expected a final configuration by the following March.

The aircraft, which sported a 12-frame shorter fuselage for 767-like, 245-passenger accommodation, first appeared at the Hanover Air Show in model form.

Its wing, retaining the 28-degree sweepback of the A-300's, featured a shorter span and a consequent 16-percent reduced area, eliminating its center, half-spar and therefore offering equal, front and rear spar load distribution. The spars themselves, with 50 percent greater depth, were stronger, yet decreased structural weight by more than five tons. Its revised shape, requiring a new center section, introduced a double-curved profile, its metal, bent both span- and chord-wise, requiring shot-peening manufacturing techniques to form.

The increased-chord and -radius leading edge slats, necessitating a new cut-out over the engine pylon, improved take off performance, while the former, inner-tabbed, trailing edge Fowler flap panels were integrated into a single-slotted one with increased rearward movement. The two outer panels, also combined into a single panel, reduced cruise drag.

Lateral control, no longer necessitating the A-300's outboard ailerons, was maintained by the inboard ailerons operating in conjunction with the spoilers.

The tailplane, a scaled-down version of the A-300's, featured reduced separation between the upper surface of its elevator and the horizontal stabilizer, in order to decrease drag, and a redesigned tailcone permitted optimized internal cabin volume.

Powerplant choices included the 48,000 thrust-pound General Electric CF6-80A1 and the evenly powered Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4D1, while the Rolls Royce RB.211-524D was optionally available, although no carrier ever specified it.

Both potential launch customers, round which specifications the foreshortened version took shape, placed orders, Swissair ordering ten Pratt and Whitney-powered aircraft on March 15, 1979, Lufthansa placing 25 rule 25 and optioned orders for the General Electric-powered variant on April 1 , and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines mimicking this order with ten firm and ten options two days later, also for the General Electric version, thus signaling the program's official launch.

Three basic versions, varying according to range, were then envisioned: the short-range, 2,000-mile A-310-100; the medium-range, 3,000-mile A-310-200; and the long-range, 3,500-mile A-310-300.

Final assembly the first two Pratt and Whitney-powered A-310-200s, with construction numbers (c / n) 162 and 163, commenced in the Aerospatiale factory in Toulouse during the winter of 1981 to 1982, continuing, not reinitiating, the A -300 production line numbering sequence. Major sections, components, parts, and powerplants were fabricated by eight basic aerospace companies: Deutsche Airbus (major fuselage portions, the vertical fin, and the rudder), Aerospatiale (the front fuselage, the cockpit, the lower center fuselage, and the engine pylons, British Aerospace (the wings), CASA (doors and the horizontal tail), Fokker (the wing moving surfaces), Belairbus (also the wing moving surfaces), General Electric (the engines), and Pratt and Whitney (also the engines). Fokker and Belairbus were Airbus Industrie associate members.

Transfer to the final assembly site was facilitated by a fleet of four, 4,912-shaft horsepower Allison 501-D22C turboprop-powered Aero Spacelines Super Guppys, which had been based upon the original, quad piston-engined B-377 Stratocruiser airliners, requiring eight flights collectively totaling 45 airborne hours and covering some 8,000 miles for A-310 completion. The transports were re-dubbed “Airbus Skylinks.”

A-310 customer furnishing, including thermal and noise insulation; wall, floor, and door cladding; ceiling, overhead storage facility, and bulkhead installations; and galley, lavatory, and seat addition, according to airline specification of class divisions, densities, and fabrics, colors, and motifs, occurred in Hamburg Finkenwerder, to where all aircraft were flown from Toulouse.

The first A-310, registered F-WZLH and wearing Lufthansa living on its left side and Swissair creation on its right, was roled out on February 16, 1982. Powered by Pratt and Whitney turbofans, it only differed from production aircraft in its internal test equipment and retention of the A-300's dual, low- and high-speed aileron configuration.

Superficially resembling a smaller A-300, however, it incorporated several design configurations.

The 13-frame-shorter fuselage, rendering an overall aircraft length of 153.1 feet, incorporated a redesigned tail and a relocated aft pressure bulkhead, resulting in a cabin only 11 frames shorter, and access was provided by four main passenger / galley serving doors and two oversize type 1 emergency exits. These measured four feet, 6 3/4 inches high by two feet, 2 1/2 inches wide.

The A-310's wing box, a two-spar, multi-rib metal structure with upper and lower load-carrying skins, introduced new-purity aluminum alloys in its upper layer and stringers, which is reflected in a 660-pound weight reduction, but otherwise retained the larger A-300's ribs and spacings. Almost blended with the fuselage's lower curve at its underside root, the airfoil offered a greater thickness-chord ratio, of 11.8, as opposed to its predecessor's 10.5, reducing the amount of wing-to-body interference ordinarily encountered at high Mach numbers, yet it afforded sufficient depth at the root itself to carry the required loads at the lowest possible structural weight and simultaneously provided the greatest amount of integral fuel tankage.

Low-speed lift was attained by means of the three leading edge slat panels and a single Krueger flap located between the inner-most slat and the root, and inboard, vaned, trailing edge Fowler flaps and a single outboard Fowler flap panel.

Although the first two A-310s retained the A-300's outboard, low-speed ailerons, they quickly demonstrated their redundancy, roll control maintained by means of all-speed, trailing edge ailerons augmented by three electrically-activated, outer spoilers, which extended on the ground-angled wing. The four inner spoilers served as airbrakes, while all seven, per wing, extended after touchdown to serve as lift dumpers.

Engine bleed air or that that from the auxiliary power unit (APU) provided icing protection.

Engine pylons were positioned further inboard then those of the comparable A-300, and the nacelles protruded further forward.

With a 144-foot span, the wings covered a 2,357.3-square-foot area and had an 8.8 aspect ratio.

Although the A-310 retained the A-300's conventional tail, it featured a horizontal stabilizer span reduction, from 55.7 to 53.4 feet, with a corresponding decease from 748.1 to 688.89 square feet, while its vertical fined an overall aircraft height of 51.10 feet .

Power was provided by two 48,000 thrust-pound Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4D1 or two 48,000 thrust-pound General Electric CF6-80A1 high range ratio turbofans, either of which was supported by the existing pylons, and usable fuel totaled 14,509 US gallons.

The hydraulically operated tricycle undercarriage was comprised of a twin-wheeled, forward-retracting, steerable nose wheel, and two, dual tandem-mounted, laterally-retracting, anti-skid, Messier-Bugatti main units. Their carbon brakes resolved in a 1,200-pound weight reduction.

The smaller, lighter, and quieter Garrett GTCP 331-250 auxiliary power unit offered lower fuel consumption than that employed by the A-300, and the aircraft featured three independent, 3,000 pound-per-square-inch hydraulic systems.

The A-310's cockpit, based upon its predecessor's, incorporated the latest avionics technology and electronic displays, and traced its origin to the October 6, 1981 first forward-facing cockpit crew (FFCC) A-300 flight, which deleted the third, or flight engineer, position, resulting in certification to this standard after a three-month, 150-hour flight text program. That aircraft that became the first widebody airliner to be operated by a two-person cockpit crew.

The most visually-identical flight deck advancement, over and above the number of required crew members, had been the replacement of many traditional analog dials and instruments with six, 27-square-millimeter, interchangeable cathode ray tube (CRT) display screens to reduce both physical and mental crew work, subdivided into an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) and an Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM), which either displayed information which was necessary or which was crew-requested, but otherwise employed the dark-screen philosophy. Malfunction severity was indicated by color-white indicating that something had been turned off, yellow indicating potentially required action, and red signaling immediately-needed action, coupled with an audible warning.

Of the six display screens, the Primary Flight Display (PFD), which was duplicated for both the captain and the first officer, and the Navigation Display (ND), which was equally duplicated, belonged to the Electronic Flight Instrument System, while the Warning Display (WD) and the Systems Display (SD) belong to the Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor.

The Primary Flight Display, viewable in several modes, offered, for example, an electronic image of an artificial horizon, on the left of which was a linear scale indicating critical periods, such as stick shaker, minimum, minimum flap retraction, and maneuver, while on the right of it were altitude parameters.

The Navigation Display screen, below that of the Primary Flight Display, also featured several modes. Its map mode, for instance, enabled multiple parts and scales of a compass rose to be displayed, such as its upper arc subdivided into degrees, with indications of course track deviations, wind, tuned-in VOR / DME, weather radar, the selected heading, the true and indicative airspeeds, the course and remaining distance to waypoints, primary and secondary flight plans, top-of-descent, and vertical deviations.

The autopilot possessed full control for Category 2 automatic approaches, including single-engine overshoots, with optional Category 3 autoland capability.

The collective Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor, which two display screens were located on the lower left and right sides of the center panel, continued screened more than 500 pieces of information, indicating or alerting of anomalies, with diagrams and schematics only appearing during flight phase- relevant interviews, coupled with any necessary and remedial actions. The Systems Display, located on the right, could feature any cockpit crew member-selected schematic at any time, such as hydraulics, aileron position, and flaps.

Two keyboards on the center pedestrian interfaced the flight management system (FMS).

The flight control system, operating off two arinc 701-standard computers and essentially serving as autopilots, drve the flight director and speed reference system, and was operable in numerous modes, inclusive of auto take off, auto go-around, vertical speed select and hold, altitude capture and hold, heading select, flight level change, hold, heading hold, pitch, roll / attitude hold, and VOR select and homing.

The thrust control system, operating off an an Arinc 703-standard computer, provided continuous computation and command of the optimum N1 and / or engine pressure ratio (EPR) limits, the autothrottle functions, the autothrottle command for windshear protection, and the autothrottle command for speed and angle-of-attack protection.

Unlike earlier airliners, the A-310 replaced the older-technology pilot command and input transmission by means of mechanical, cable links with electronic bit or byte signaling.

Retaining the A-300's fuselage cross-section, the A-310 featured a 109.1-foot-long, 17.4-foot-wide, and seven-foot, 7 3/4-inch high cabin, resulting in a 7,416-cubic-foot internal volume, which inherent flexibility facilitated six-, seven-, eight-, and nine-abreast seating for first, business, premium economy, standard economy, and high-density / charter configurations and densities, all according to customer specification. Typical dual-class arrangements included 20 six-abreast, two-two-two, first class seats at a 40-inch pitch and 200 eight-abreast, two-four-two, coach seats at a 32-inch pitch, or 29 first class and 212 economy class passengers at, respectively, six-abreast / 40-inch and eight-abreast / 32-inch densities. Two hundred forty-seven single-class passengers could be accommodated at a 31- to 32-inch pitch, while the aircraft's 280-passenger, exit-limited maximum, entailed a nine-abreast, 30-inch pitch arrangement.

Standard configurations including two galleys and one lavatory forward and two galleys and four lavatories aft, with encloseable, handrail-equipped overhead storage compartments installed over the side and center seat banks.

The forward, lower-deck hold, measuring 25 feet, 1/2 inch in length, accepted three pallets or eight LD3 containers, while the aft hold, running 16 feet, 6 1/4 inch in length, accepted six LD3 containers. The collective 3,605 cubic feet of lower-deck volume rejected from the 1,776 cubic feet in the forward compartment, the 1,218 in the aft warehouse, and the 611 in the bulk compartment, which only accepted loose, or non-unit load device (ULD) , load.

Powered by two General Electric CF6-80C2A2 engines and configured for 220 passengers, the A-310-200 had a 72,439-pound maximum payload, a 313,050-pound maximum take off weight, and a 271,150-pound maximum landing weight. Range, with international reserves for a 200-nautical mile diversion, was 4,200 miles.

The A-310-200 prototype, flown by Senior Test Pilot Bernard Ziegler and Pierre Baud, took to the skies for the first time on April 3, 1982 powered by Pratt and Whitney JT9D turbofans, and completed a very successful three-hour, 15 -minute sortie, during which time it attained a Mach 0.77 airspeed and a 31,000-foot altitude. After 11 weeks, 210 airborne hours had been logged.

The second prototype, registered F-WZLI and also powered by Pratt and Whitney engines, first flew on May 3, completing a four-hour, 45-minute flight, and the third, powered by the General Electric CF6 turbofans for the first time, Shortly followed, the five aircraft demonstrating that the A-300-morphed design had far more capacity than originally calculated. Drag measures were so low, in fact, that the cruise Mach number was increased from the initially calculated 0.78 to a new 0.805, while the buffet boundary was ten-percent greater, permitting a 2,000-foot-higher flight level for any gross weight to be attained, or a 24,250-pound greater payload to be transported. Long-range fuel consumption was four percent lower.

The Airbus A-310 received its French and German type certification on March 11, 1983 for both the Pratt and Whitney- and General Electric-powered aircraft and Category 2 approaches, and a dual-delivery ceremony, to Lufthansa German Airlines and Swissair, occurred on March 29 in Toulouse. It became the European manufacturer's second aircraft after that of the original A-300.

Lufthansa, which had operated 11 A-300B2s and -B4s and had inaugurated the larger type into service seven years earlier, on April 1, 1976, from Frankfurt to London, followed suit with the A-310-200 on April 12, 1983, from Frankfurt to Stuttgart, before being deploying the type to London later that day. It replaced its early A-300B2s.

Swissair, which, like Lufthansa, had been instrumental in its ultimate design, inaugurated the A-310 into service nine days later, on April 21. Of its initial four, three were based in Zurich and one was based in Geneva, and all were used on high-density, European and Middle Eastern sectors, many of which had previously been served by DC-9s.

A convertible variant, featuring a forward, left, upward-opening main deck cargo door and loading system, was designated A-310-200C, the first of which was delivered to Martinair Holland on November 29, 1984.
By March 31, 1985, 56 A-310s operated by 13 carriers had fluctuated 103,400 revenue hours during 60,000 flights which had averaged one-hour, 43 minutes in duration.

Demand for a longer-range version precluded A-310-100 production, but resolved in the second, and only other, major version, the A-310-300.

Launched in March of 1983, it introduced several range-extending design features.

Wingtip wings, vertically spaning 55 inches and featuring a rear navigation light fairing, extended above and below the tip, extracting energy from unheardassed vortices created by upper and lower airfoil pressure differential intermixing, and reduced fuel burn by 1.5 percent. The device was first flight-tested on August 1, 1984.

Increased range capability, to a far greater extent, directed from modifying the horizontal stabilizer into an integral trim fuel tank. Connected to the main wing tanks by double-walled pipes and electrically driven pumps, the new tank was contained in the structurally reinforced and sealed horizontal stabilizer wing box, storing five tons of fuel and shifting the center-of-gravity over 12- to 16 -percent of the aerodynamic chord. The modification, requiring minimal structural change to an aerodynamic surface beyond the pressurized fuselage, offered numerous advantages over the increase in range, including Concorde-reminisent, in-flight fuel transferability to effectuate optimum trims, and an aft center-of-gravity to reduce wing loading, drag, and resultant fuel burn. A trim tank computer controlled and monitored center-of-gravity settings, and the amount of needed fuel could have been specifically selected during the on-ground refueling process.

Structure weight had been decreed by use of a carbon-fiber vertical fin, resulting in a 310-pound reduction. The A-310 had been the first commercial airliner to employ such a structure.

Total fuel capacity, including that of the trim tank, equaled 16,133 US gallons, while up to two additional tanks could be installed in the forward portion of the aft hold, increasing capacity by another 1,902 US gallons.

In order to permit extended-range twin operations (ETOPS), a certification later redesignated extended-range operations (EROPS), the aircraft was fitted with a hydraulically-driven generator, increased lower-deck fire protection, and the capability of in-flight APU starts at minimum cruising altitudes.

Powered by General Electric CF6-80C2A8 turbofans and carrying 220 dual-class passengers, the A-310-300 had a 71,403-pound payload capability and a 330,675-pound maximum take off weight, able to fly 4,948-mile nonstop sectors.

First flying on July 8, 1985, the type was certified with Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4E engines six months later, on December 5, while certification with the General Electric CF6-80C2 powerplant followed in April of 1986.

Four of Swissair's ten A-310s, which were operated on its Middle Eastern and West African routes, were -300 series.

The A-310-300 was the first western airliner to attain Russian State Aviation Register type certification, in October of 1991.

Although it had initially been intended as a smaller-capacity, medium-range A-300 complement, the design features incorporated both conceptually and progressively in a very capable twin-engine, twin cockpit crew, widebody, intercontinental airliner which, in its two basic forms, served multiple missions: an earlier-generation Boeing 707 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-8 replacement; a Boeing 727 replacement on maturing, medium-range routes; a DC-10 and L-1011 TriStar replacement on long, thin sections; an A-300 replacement on lower-density segments; an A-300 complete during off-peak times; and a European competitor to the similarly-configured Boeing 767, enabling Airbus Industrie to describe the type as follows: “The A-310's optimized range of up to 5,000 nautical miles (9,600 km) is one of the parameters that has made it the ideal 'first widebody' aircraft for airlines growing to this size of operation. ”

Singapore Airlines had been the first to deploy the A-310-200 on long-range overwater routes in June of 1985, covering the 3,250-mile sector between Singapore and Mauritius, although the aircraft had not been EROPS-equipped, that distinction reserved for Pan Am, which had connected the 3,300 miles over the North Atlantic from New York / JFK to Hamburg the following April.

During that year, the A-310-200 became available with wingtip wings, first deliveries of which were made to Thai Airways International, and the A-310-300 was progressively certified with upgraded engines and increased ranges, a 346,125-pound gross weight producing a 5,466-mile range capability and a 361,560-pound gross weight producing a 5,926-mile range, all with General Electric engines. Pratt and Whitney turbofan-powered aircraft offered even greater ranges.

The first EROPS-equipped A-310-300 with JT9D-7R4E engines, was delivered to Balair on March 21, 1986, and its range capability, with 242 single-class passengers and a 337,300-pound gross weight, exceeded 4,500 miles.

By the end of that month, the A-310 fleet had collectively logged more than 250,000 hours.

A post-production cargo conversion of the A-310-200, designated A-310-P2F and performed by EADS EFW in Dresden, Germany, entailed the installation of a forward, left, up-opening door, which facilitated loading of 11 96 x 125-inch or 16 88 x 125-inch main deck pallets, while three of the former and six LD3 containers could be accommodated on the lower deck. With an 89,508-pound payload and a 313,055-pound maximum take off weight, the freighter offered 10,665 cubic feet of internal volume.

The last of the 255 A-310s produced, an A-310-300 registered UK-31003, first flew on April 6, 1998 and was delivered to Uzbekistan Airways two months later, on June 15. Although Airbus Industrie had contemplated offering a shorter -fuselage version of the A-330, the A-330-500, as a potential A-310 replacement, its range and capacity had proved too high to assume its mission profiles. Resultantly, no definitive design ever succeeded it.

Technical Mouldings

Aerospace plastic component molding. Components can be produced with rocks, varying thickness, and superb surfaces, using almost all thermoplastics materials. Orientation of molecules and reinforcement occurs during the process. High pressures, nonuniform polymer shrinkage, and orientation can lead to warpage and sinkage over ribs and bosses. Warpage is most similar with crystalline materials and with…

Aerospace plastic component molding.

Components can be produced with rocks, varying thickness, and superb surfaces, using almost all thermoplastics materials. Orientation of molecules and reinforcement occurs during the process. High pressures, nonuniform polymer shrinkage, and orientation can lead to warpage and sinkage over ribs and bosses. Warpage is most similar with crystalline materials and with large, rather flat parts.

In as9100 accredited mouldings, plastics granules are softened and forced under pressure into a cold mold through small orifices, or gates. Pressure is maintained on the material after injection is complete so as to reduce sinkage of the ribs and bosses as the material cools. Pressure is higher at the gates because it will not transfer effectively through the compressible and rapidly cooling melt. The additional packing pressure leads to a higher density of material near the gates and causes internal stresses. These stresses tend to be partially relieved when the part is removed from the tool, resulting in warpage.
The plastics melt must flow from the gates, through the narrow gap between cooled mold surfaces, to the edge of the tool. As the material flows, the gap becomes narrower as some of the melt solidifies at the mold surface. The pressure, flow rate, and distance between the mold faces must be great enough, and the material viscosity low enough, to fill the mold before the solidifying material closes off the flow path. For each material and part thickness, there is a maximum practical flow length from a gate.

The higher the pressure and the narrower the flow path, the greater the orientation. As the gap freezes off, the orientation becomes greater. Therefore, the orientation at the center of the component wall is much higher than that at the surface. For the same reason, orientation is highest near the gates. The gates should not be in areas that are likely to suffer impact or other stresses. such as chemical attack.

Technical moldings.

The maximum practical thickness of components is about 4 mm (0.16 in.); above this thickness, cooling time becomes excessive. The minimum normal thickness for injection molding is about 1 mm (0.04 in.); Below this level, the part cools before the tool filled, and orientation is excessive. Polystyrene drinking glasses, for example, will always split in the direction of flow when squeezed.

The largest readily available presses have about a 27 MN (3000 tonf) clamping force, which restricts part size to about l m2 (10 ft2) or less for more difficult and filled materials. The flow length of the plastics from any one gate is limited to about 500 mm (20 in.) With a 3 mm wall thickness.

Therefore, multiple gates must be used for large parts. Gate design and position are very important for reducing part warpage and add to the complexity of orientation effects.

The strength and modulus values ​​of parts when plastic component molding as9100 accredited mouldings are limited by theability of the process to handle reinforcement longer than a few millimeters without breaking the fibers or blocking me injection system. Although fillers and short fiber reinforcements can be added. this tenders to produce stiffer components having greater resistance to load at elevated temperature but much lower impact resistance.

Some specially formulated materials have been produced that contain glass approximately 10 mm (0.4 in.) In length. These materials can be used to a limited amount with injection molding, but are better suited to injection / compression processes.

Aerospace Supply Chain Management

It is the development of software that has changed the aircraft spares industry more than anything else in the history of aviation. Supply chain management partnerships reduced inventories and increased materials availability. Stockouts, shortages and expediting fees are rarely due to a lack of inventory. Usually they are due to a lack of visibility, control,…

It is the development of software that has changed the aircraft spares industry more than anything else in the history of aviation. Supply chain management partnerships reduced inventories and increased materials availability. Stockouts, shortages and expediting fees are rarely due to a lack of inventory. Usually they are due to a lack of visibility, control, and system flexibility.

This kind of software puts real-time usage data right at your fingertips – and provides the power to use this information to make sure that the right parts get to the right places precisely when they are needed.

With more control you can:

Substantly decrease your overall inventory
Quickly see and adapt to changes in demand … as they occur
Diminish the possibility of shortages and stockouts
In short, such software will let your employees spend their time adding value, not leasing parts or expediting shipments.

Supply chain management software is a true pull system capable to provide real-time demand data from each location – even for the highest volume parts.

> It has been specifically designed to meet the prerequisite needs of multiple supplier operations and outsourcing.
> It automates the latest kitting, subassembly, and direct line feed (DLF) operations.
> It is aligned to your current warehouse, helping assign tasks and facilitate all steps of the materials flow in the most efficient manner.
> It can pay for itself within 6 months:

Provided initial savings, including reduced stock levels plus point-of-invoice controls, that should begin to pay for the system immediately. Dramatically decrements expediting fees, personnel costs, and end-of-the-year stock dumping. Once You See the system In Action, You Will not Be Able To Imagine A Supply Chain Without It.

Our Aircraft and Space Craft Are About to Change – Never Will They Be the Same

It looks like airline manufacturers like Boeing, Airbus, Embraer, bombardier, and many others which will be on the market soon such as the Chinese newest copy cat airliner which looks like a DC-9 or 727 hybrid are all building very similar aircraft. Even Boeing's new 787 although it is revolutionary in many regards because it…

It looks like airline manufacturers like Boeing, Airbus, Embraer, bombardier, and many others which will be on the market soon such as the Chinese newest copy cat airliner which looks like a DC-9 or 727 hybrid are all building very similar aircraft. Even Boeing's new 787 although it is revolutionary in many regards because it is made entirely out of composite, still looks the same as a normal aircraft. Sure, it has tweaks and design efficiencies here and there, but aerodynamically speaking it looks to be an incremental change.

The lightweight structure improves efficiency, fuel economy, and therefore makes it the better aircraft, but it also costs significantly more and there before it will affect the purchasing airline's return on investment even though it will certainly make it up and fuel over time. Also, it is not a very large aircraft, like a wide-body 747, and although it has long-range, better speed, and super materials it is only part of the new wave of the future of aerospace.

In the future new materials will change everything, wing spars and ribs will no longer be anywhere near what they are today, and with shape shifting materials there is no reason to keep the same shape through the flight. All the mechanical controls are will no longer be needed in the future, because the wings will be able to bend and change the airflow for pitch, roll, and yaw. Instead of mechanical flaps and slats, the wing will re-contour itself for a landing configuration, or a super cruise configuration.

As the fuel gets used, and the fuel tanks become empty – the aircraft can shrink in size, and restreamline itself for better aerodynamics. The aircraft design and look of today will be changed in the future to blended wings, and other innovative designs which may be 30% more efficient than they are today. Couple that with the new materials, and you may end up with airliners which are 50% more efficient than today. This means they will use less fuel, carry more weight, and have far better range. This means a lower pollution footprint as well, and quieter to boot.

It also will bring down the cost of air travel, which every airline passenger could enjoy. But it's not just for airliners, because in the future space craft will also have these attributes and abilities. In fact, the airlines of the future may climb up outside the Earth's atmosphere and you'll be able to reach your destination anywhere in the world within about an hour and a half or less. That's right, New York to China in just over an hour. Please consider all this.