The Airbus A-310

Seeking to complement its original, although larger-capacity, A-300 on thinner sectors with a low-cost, minimally redesigned counterpart and thus expand its product range, Airbus Industrie explored a shorter-fuselage version designated “A-310.” A consortium of European aircraft manufacturers headquartered in Toulouse, France, Airbus Industrie itself had arisen because the design and marketing of an advanced, widebody…

Seeking to complement its original, although larger-capacity, A-300 on thinner sectors with a low-cost, minimally redesigned counterpart and thus expand its product range, Airbus Industrie explored a shorter-fuselage version designated “A-310.”

A consortium of European aircraft manufacturers headquartered in Toulouse, France, Airbus Industrie itself had arisen because the design and marketing of an advanced, widebody airliner had exempted the financial strength of any single, Europe-based company, the principle ones of which had included de Havilland with the DH.106 Comet, Vickers with the VC-10, Hawker Siddeley with the HS.121 Trident, and the British Aircraft Corporation with the BAC-111 in the United Kingdom, and Sud-Aviation with the SE.210 Caravelle and Dassault-Breguet with the Mercure 100 in France.

The A-300, its first joint design, not only signaled its launch as an aircraft manufacturer, but that of the aircraft itself and the concept it represented-a large-capacity, widebody, twin-engined “airbus.” Intended to compete with Boeing, and particularly with its still-envisioned 767, it provided a non-US alternative to continental carriers and a foundation on which a European commercial product range could be built, offering the first serious challenge to both Boeing and McDonnell- Douglas.

Intended for short- to medium-range, reliably high-capacity deployment, the aircraft featured a widebody fuselage mated to two high bypass ratio turbofans which threaten capacity and reliability, coupled with a high-lift wing, had served as the key elements of its design.

Obviating the need for a third powerplant characteristic of the 727, the DC-10, and the L-1011, the twin-engine configuration yielded numerous economic benefits, including the reduction of structural and gross weights, the reduction of maintenance costs, the elimination of the additionally required fuel lines, the introduction of structural simplicity, and the reduction of seat-mile costs.

Aerodynamically, the twin-engine design also addressed in several advantages. The wings, mounted further forward than feasible by a tri-engine configuration, increased the moment-arm between the pylon-slung turbofans / center-of gravity and its tail, thus requiring smaller horizontal and vertical stabilizers to maintain longitudinal and yaw-axis control and indirectly reducing structural weight and drag, yet maintaining certifiable control during single-engine loss, asymmetrical constant conditions.

Designed by the Hawker Siddeley team in Hatfield, the 28-degree sweptback, supercritical wing, built up of a forward and rear full and mid half-spar, produced the greater portion of its lift over its aft portion, delaying shock wave formation and reducing drag.

Low-speed lift was augmented by full-span, engine pylon-uninterrupted leading edge slats, which increased the aircraft's take off weight capacity by some 2,000 pounds, and tabbed, trailing edge Fowler flaps, which extended to 70 percent of their travel before rotating into camber-increasing profiles, resulting in a 25-percent larger chord.

Part of the reason for engine reliability had been the auxiliary power unit's integration into the main electric, air conditioning, and starting systems, providing immediate back-up in the event of engine failure at altitudes as high as 30,000 feet.

The A-300's widebody fuselage provided the same degree of twin-aisle comfort and loading capacity of standard LD3 baggage and cargo containers as featured by the quad-engined 747 and the tri-engined DC-10 and L-1011.

Seeking to build upon these design strengths, yet decrease passenger capacity with a foreshortened fuselage and expand its market application, Airbus Industrie conceptionally studied and proposed nine potential aircraft vary in capacity, range, and powerplant number and designated A-300B1 to -9 based upon the initial A-300 platform.

It was the tenth, however-designated A-300B10-which most optimally catered to carriers' needs for a 200-passenger airliner for segments with insufficient demand to support its larger counterpart and for those which merited additional frequencies, such as during off-peak times. Other than the original original prototype A-300B1s and the three-frame longer A-300B2, the aircraft had only offered a single basic fuselage length, which capacity partially credited for initially sluggish sales.

Although a low-cost A-300B10MC “Minimal Change” entailed mating a shorter fuselage with the existing wing, powerplants, and tailplane would have provided few engineering obstacles, it would have resolved in an aircraft proportionally too small and heavy for the A-300's original surfaces. After a lower structural weight, it would have offered insufficient internal volume for revenue-generating passenger, cargo, and mail payload to eclipse its direct operating costs (DOC).

Balancing both the superior performance and the minimized development cost sides of the program's equation, Airbus Industrie considered two possible approaches:

1). The A-300B10X, which employed a new wing designed by the since-amalgamated British Aerospace in Hatfield with smaller leading and trailing edge, high-lift devices.

2). The A-300B10Y, which utilized the existing A-300 wing box, with some configurations.

Lufthansa, the envisioned launch customer, strongly advocated the former approach, because of the reduced costs associated with a redesigned, more advanced airfoil, and, together with Swissair, which equally contemplated an order for the type, detailed performance specifications. Placing deposits for 16 A-300B10s, which were currently redesignated “A-310s,” in July of 1978, both airlines expected a final configuration by the following March.

The aircraft, which sported a 12-frame shorter fuselage for 767-like, 245-passenger accommodation, first appeared at the Hanover Air Show in model form.

Its wing, retaining the 28-degree sweepback of the A-300's, featured a shorter span and a consequent 16-percent reduced area, eliminating its center, half-spar and therefore offering equal, front and rear spar load distribution. The spars themselves, with 50 percent greater depth, were stronger, yet decreased structural weight by more than five tons. Its revised shape, requiring a new center section, introduced a double-curved profile, its metal, bent both span- and chord-wise, requiring shot-peening manufacturing techniques to form.

The increased-chord and -radius leading edge slats, necessitating a new cut-out over the engine pylon, improved take off performance, while the former, inner-tabbed, trailing edge Fowler flap panels were integrated into a single-slotted one with increased rearward movement. The two outer panels, also combined into a single panel, reduced cruise drag.

Lateral control, no longer necessitating the A-300's outboard ailerons, was maintained by the inboard ailerons operating in conjunction with the spoilers.

The tailplane, a scaled-down version of the A-300's, featured reduced separation between the upper surface of its elevator and the horizontal stabilizer, in order to decrease drag, and a redesigned tailcone permitted optimized internal cabin volume.

Powerplant choices included the 48,000 thrust-pound General Electric CF6-80A1 and the evenly powered Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4D1, while the Rolls Royce RB.211-524D was optionally available, although no carrier ever specified it.

Both potential launch customers, round which specifications the foreshortened version took shape, placed orders, Swissair ordering ten Pratt and Whitney-powered aircraft on March 15, 1979, Lufthansa placing 25 rule 25 and optioned orders for the General Electric-powered variant on April 1 , and KLM Royal Dutch Airlines mimicking this order with ten firm and ten options two days later, also for the General Electric version, thus signaling the program's official launch.

Three basic versions, varying according to range, were then envisioned: the short-range, 2,000-mile A-310-100; the medium-range, 3,000-mile A-310-200; and the long-range, 3,500-mile A-310-300.

Final assembly the first two Pratt and Whitney-powered A-310-200s, with construction numbers (c / n) 162 and 163, commenced in the Aerospatiale factory in Toulouse during the winter of 1981 to 1982, continuing, not reinitiating, the A -300 production line numbering sequence. Major sections, components, parts, and powerplants were fabricated by eight basic aerospace companies: Deutsche Airbus (major fuselage portions, the vertical fin, and the rudder), Aerospatiale (the front fuselage, the cockpit, the lower center fuselage, and the engine pylons, British Aerospace (the wings), CASA (doors and the horizontal tail), Fokker (the wing moving surfaces), Belairbus (also the wing moving surfaces), General Electric (the engines), and Pratt and Whitney (also the engines). Fokker and Belairbus were Airbus Industrie associate members.

Transfer to the final assembly site was facilitated by a fleet of four, 4,912-shaft horsepower Allison 501-D22C turboprop-powered Aero Spacelines Super Guppys, which had been based upon the original, quad piston-engined B-377 Stratocruiser airliners, requiring eight flights collectively totaling 45 airborne hours and covering some 8,000 miles for A-310 completion. The transports were re-dubbed “Airbus Skylinks.”

A-310 customer furnishing, including thermal and noise insulation; wall, floor, and door cladding; ceiling, overhead storage facility, and bulkhead installations; and galley, lavatory, and seat addition, according to airline specification of class divisions, densities, and fabrics, colors, and motifs, occurred in Hamburg Finkenwerder, to where all aircraft were flown from Toulouse.

The first A-310, registered F-WZLH and wearing Lufthansa living on its left side and Swissair creation on its right, was roled out on February 16, 1982. Powered by Pratt and Whitney turbofans, it only differed from production aircraft in its internal test equipment and retention of the A-300's dual, low- and high-speed aileron configuration.

Superficially resembling a smaller A-300, however, it incorporated several design configurations.

The 13-frame-shorter fuselage, rendering an overall aircraft length of 153.1 feet, incorporated a redesigned tail and a relocated aft pressure bulkhead, resulting in a cabin only 11 frames shorter, and access was provided by four main passenger / galley serving doors and two oversize type 1 emergency exits. These measured four feet, 6 3/4 inches high by two feet, 2 1/2 inches wide.

The A-310's wing box, a two-spar, multi-rib metal structure with upper and lower load-carrying skins, introduced new-purity aluminum alloys in its upper layer and stringers, which is reflected in a 660-pound weight reduction, but otherwise retained the larger A-300's ribs and spacings. Almost blended with the fuselage's lower curve at its underside root, the airfoil offered a greater thickness-chord ratio, of 11.8, as opposed to its predecessor's 10.5, reducing the amount of wing-to-body interference ordinarily encountered at high Mach numbers, yet it afforded sufficient depth at the root itself to carry the required loads at the lowest possible structural weight and simultaneously provided the greatest amount of integral fuel tankage.

Low-speed lift was attained by means of the three leading edge slat panels and a single Krueger flap located between the inner-most slat and the root, and inboard, vaned, trailing edge Fowler flaps and a single outboard Fowler flap panel.

Although the first two A-310s retained the A-300's outboard, low-speed ailerons, they quickly demonstrated their redundancy, roll control maintained by means of all-speed, trailing edge ailerons augmented by three electrically-activated, outer spoilers, which extended on the ground-angled wing. The four inner spoilers served as airbrakes, while all seven, per wing, extended after touchdown to serve as lift dumpers.

Engine bleed air or that that from the auxiliary power unit (APU) provided icing protection.

Engine pylons were positioned further inboard then those of the comparable A-300, and the nacelles protruded further forward.

With a 144-foot span, the wings covered a 2,357.3-square-foot area and had an 8.8 aspect ratio.

Although the A-310 retained the A-300's conventional tail, it featured a horizontal stabilizer span reduction, from 55.7 to 53.4 feet, with a corresponding decease from 748.1 to 688.89 square feet, while its vertical fined an overall aircraft height of 51.10 feet .

Power was provided by two 48,000 thrust-pound Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4D1 or two 48,000 thrust-pound General Electric CF6-80A1 high range ratio turbofans, either of which was supported by the existing pylons, and usable fuel totaled 14,509 US gallons.

The hydraulically operated tricycle undercarriage was comprised of a twin-wheeled, forward-retracting, steerable nose wheel, and two, dual tandem-mounted, laterally-retracting, anti-skid, Messier-Bugatti main units. Their carbon brakes resolved in a 1,200-pound weight reduction.

The smaller, lighter, and quieter Garrett GTCP 331-250 auxiliary power unit offered lower fuel consumption than that employed by the A-300, and the aircraft featured three independent, 3,000 pound-per-square-inch hydraulic systems.

The A-310's cockpit, based upon its predecessor's, incorporated the latest avionics technology and electronic displays, and traced its origin to the October 6, 1981 first forward-facing cockpit crew (FFCC) A-300 flight, which deleted the third, or flight engineer, position, resulting in certification to this standard after a three-month, 150-hour flight text program. That aircraft that became the first widebody airliner to be operated by a two-person cockpit crew.

The most visually-identical flight deck advancement, over and above the number of required crew members, had been the replacement of many traditional analog dials and instruments with six, 27-square-millimeter, interchangeable cathode ray tube (CRT) display screens to reduce both physical and mental crew work, subdivided into an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) and an Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM), which either displayed information which was necessary or which was crew-requested, but otherwise employed the dark-screen philosophy. Malfunction severity was indicated by color-white indicating that something had been turned off, yellow indicating potentially required action, and red signaling immediately-needed action, coupled with an audible warning.

Of the six display screens, the Primary Flight Display (PFD), which was duplicated for both the captain and the first officer, and the Navigation Display (ND), which was equally duplicated, belonged to the Electronic Flight Instrument System, while the Warning Display (WD) and the Systems Display (SD) belong to the Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor.

The Primary Flight Display, viewable in several modes, offered, for example, an electronic image of an artificial horizon, on the left of which was a linear scale indicating critical periods, such as stick shaker, minimum, minimum flap retraction, and maneuver, while on the right of it were altitude parameters.

The Navigation Display screen, below that of the Primary Flight Display, also featured several modes. Its map mode, for instance, enabled multiple parts and scales of a compass rose to be displayed, such as its upper arc subdivided into degrees, with indications of course track deviations, wind, tuned-in VOR / DME, weather radar, the selected heading, the true and indicative airspeeds, the course and remaining distance to waypoints, primary and secondary flight plans, top-of-descent, and vertical deviations.

The autopilot possessed full control for Category 2 automatic approaches, including single-engine overshoots, with optional Category 3 autoland capability.

The collective Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor, which two display screens were located on the lower left and right sides of the center panel, continued screened more than 500 pieces of information, indicating or alerting of anomalies, with diagrams and schematics only appearing during flight phase- relevant interviews, coupled with any necessary and remedial actions. The Systems Display, located on the right, could feature any cockpit crew member-selected schematic at any time, such as hydraulics, aileron position, and flaps.

Two keyboards on the center pedestrian interfaced the flight management system (FMS).

The flight control system, operating off two arinc 701-standard computers and essentially serving as autopilots, drve the flight director and speed reference system, and was operable in numerous modes, inclusive of auto take off, auto go-around, vertical speed select and hold, altitude capture and hold, heading select, flight level change, hold, heading hold, pitch, roll / attitude hold, and VOR select and homing.

The thrust control system, operating off an an Arinc 703-standard computer, provided continuous computation and command of the optimum N1 and / or engine pressure ratio (EPR) limits, the autothrottle functions, the autothrottle command for windshear protection, and the autothrottle command for speed and angle-of-attack protection.

Unlike earlier airliners, the A-310 replaced the older-technology pilot command and input transmission by means of mechanical, cable links with electronic bit or byte signaling.

Retaining the A-300's fuselage cross-section, the A-310 featured a 109.1-foot-long, 17.4-foot-wide, and seven-foot, 7 3/4-inch high cabin, resulting in a 7,416-cubic-foot internal volume, which inherent flexibility facilitated six-, seven-, eight-, and nine-abreast seating for first, business, premium economy, standard economy, and high-density / charter configurations and densities, all according to customer specification. Typical dual-class arrangements included 20 six-abreast, two-two-two, first class seats at a 40-inch pitch and 200 eight-abreast, two-four-two, coach seats at a 32-inch pitch, or 29 first class and 212 economy class passengers at, respectively, six-abreast / 40-inch and eight-abreast / 32-inch densities. Two hundred forty-seven single-class passengers could be accommodated at a 31- to 32-inch pitch, while the aircraft's 280-passenger, exit-limited maximum, entailed a nine-abreast, 30-inch pitch arrangement.

Standard configurations including two galleys and one lavatory forward and two galleys and four lavatories aft, with encloseable, handrail-equipped overhead storage compartments installed over the side and center seat banks.

The forward, lower-deck hold, measuring 25 feet, 1/2 inch in length, accepted three pallets or eight LD3 containers, while the aft hold, running 16 feet, 6 1/4 inch in length, accepted six LD3 containers. The collective 3,605 cubic feet of lower-deck volume rejected from the 1,776 cubic feet in the forward compartment, the 1,218 in the aft warehouse, and the 611 in the bulk compartment, which only accepted loose, or non-unit load device (ULD) , load.

Powered by two General Electric CF6-80C2A2 engines and configured for 220 passengers, the A-310-200 had a 72,439-pound maximum payload, a 313,050-pound maximum take off weight, and a 271,150-pound maximum landing weight. Range, with international reserves for a 200-nautical mile diversion, was 4,200 miles.

The A-310-200 prototype, flown by Senior Test Pilot Bernard Ziegler and Pierre Baud, took to the skies for the first time on April 3, 1982 powered by Pratt and Whitney JT9D turbofans, and completed a very successful three-hour, 15 -minute sortie, during which time it attained a Mach 0.77 airspeed and a 31,000-foot altitude. After 11 weeks, 210 airborne hours had been logged.

The second prototype, registered F-WZLI and also powered by Pratt and Whitney engines, first flew on May 3, completing a four-hour, 45-minute flight, and the third, powered by the General Electric CF6 turbofans for the first time, Shortly followed, the five aircraft demonstrating that the A-300-morphed design had far more capacity than originally calculated. Drag measures were so low, in fact, that the cruise Mach number was increased from the initially calculated 0.78 to a new 0.805, while the buffet boundary was ten-percent greater, permitting a 2,000-foot-higher flight level for any gross weight to be attained, or a 24,250-pound greater payload to be transported. Long-range fuel consumption was four percent lower.

The Airbus A-310 received its French and German type certification on March 11, 1983 for both the Pratt and Whitney- and General Electric-powered aircraft and Category 2 approaches, and a dual-delivery ceremony, to Lufthansa German Airlines and Swissair, occurred on March 29 in Toulouse. It became the European manufacturer's second aircraft after that of the original A-300.

Lufthansa, which had operated 11 A-300B2s and -B4s and had inaugurated the larger type into service seven years earlier, on April 1, 1976, from Frankfurt to London, followed suit with the A-310-200 on April 12, 1983, from Frankfurt to Stuttgart, before being deploying the type to London later that day. It replaced its early A-300B2s.

Swissair, which, like Lufthansa, had been instrumental in its ultimate design, inaugurated the A-310 into service nine days later, on April 21. Of its initial four, three were based in Zurich and one was based in Geneva, and all were used on high-density, European and Middle Eastern sectors, many of which had previously been served by DC-9s.

A convertible variant, featuring a forward, left, upward-opening main deck cargo door and loading system, was designated A-310-200C, the first of which was delivered to Martinair Holland on November 29, 1984.
By March 31, 1985, 56 A-310s operated by 13 carriers had fluctuated 103,400 revenue hours during 60,000 flights which had averaged one-hour, 43 minutes in duration.

Demand for a longer-range version precluded A-310-100 production, but resolved in the second, and only other, major version, the A-310-300.

Launched in March of 1983, it introduced several range-extending design features.

Wingtip wings, vertically spaning 55 inches and featuring a rear navigation light fairing, extended above and below the tip, extracting energy from unheardassed vortices created by upper and lower airfoil pressure differential intermixing, and reduced fuel burn by 1.5 percent. The device was first flight-tested on August 1, 1984.

Increased range capability, to a far greater extent, directed from modifying the horizontal stabilizer into an integral trim fuel tank. Connected to the main wing tanks by double-walled pipes and electrically driven pumps, the new tank was contained in the structurally reinforced and sealed horizontal stabilizer wing box, storing five tons of fuel and shifting the center-of-gravity over 12- to 16 -percent of the aerodynamic chord. The modification, requiring minimal structural change to an aerodynamic surface beyond the pressurized fuselage, offered numerous advantages over the increase in range, including Concorde-reminisent, in-flight fuel transferability to effectuate optimum trims, and an aft center-of-gravity to reduce wing loading, drag, and resultant fuel burn. A trim tank computer controlled and monitored center-of-gravity settings, and the amount of needed fuel could have been specifically selected during the on-ground refueling process.

Structure weight had been decreed by use of a carbon-fiber vertical fin, resulting in a 310-pound reduction. The A-310 had been the first commercial airliner to employ such a structure.

Total fuel capacity, including that of the trim tank, equaled 16,133 US gallons, while up to two additional tanks could be installed in the forward portion of the aft hold, increasing capacity by another 1,902 US gallons.

In order to permit extended-range twin operations (ETOPS), a certification later redesignated extended-range operations (EROPS), the aircraft was fitted with a hydraulically-driven generator, increased lower-deck fire protection, and the capability of in-flight APU starts at minimum cruising altitudes.

Powered by General Electric CF6-80C2A8 turbofans and carrying 220 dual-class passengers, the A-310-300 had a 71,403-pound payload capability and a 330,675-pound maximum take off weight, able to fly 4,948-mile nonstop sectors.

First flying on July 8, 1985, the type was certified with Pratt and Whitney JT9D-7R4E engines six months later, on December 5, while certification with the General Electric CF6-80C2 powerplant followed in April of 1986.

Four of Swissair's ten A-310s, which were operated on its Middle Eastern and West African routes, were -300 series.

The A-310-300 was the first western airliner to attain Russian State Aviation Register type certification, in October of 1991.

Although it had initially been intended as a smaller-capacity, medium-range A-300 complement, the design features incorporated both conceptually and progressively in a very capable twin-engine, twin cockpit crew, widebody, intercontinental airliner which, in its two basic forms, served multiple missions: an earlier-generation Boeing 707 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-8 replacement; a Boeing 727 replacement on maturing, medium-range routes; a DC-10 and L-1011 TriStar replacement on long, thin sections; an A-300 replacement on lower-density segments; an A-300 complete during off-peak times; and a European competitor to the similarly-configured Boeing 767, enabling Airbus Industrie to describe the type as follows: “The A-310's optimized range of up to 5,000 nautical miles (9,600 km) is one of the parameters that has made it the ideal 'first widebody' aircraft for airlines growing to this size of operation. ”

Singapore Airlines had been the first to deploy the A-310-200 on long-range overwater routes in June of 1985, covering the 3,250-mile sector between Singapore and Mauritius, although the aircraft had not been EROPS-equipped, that distinction reserved for Pan Am, which had connected the 3,300 miles over the North Atlantic from New York / JFK to Hamburg the following April.

During that year, the A-310-200 became available with wingtip wings, first deliveries of which were made to Thai Airways International, and the A-310-300 was progressively certified with upgraded engines and increased ranges, a 346,125-pound gross weight producing a 5,466-mile range capability and a 361,560-pound gross weight producing a 5,926-mile range, all with General Electric engines. Pratt and Whitney turbofan-powered aircraft offered even greater ranges.

The first EROPS-equipped A-310-300 with JT9D-7R4E engines, was delivered to Balair on March 21, 1986, and its range capability, with 242 single-class passengers and a 337,300-pound gross weight, exceeded 4,500 miles.

By the end of that month, the A-310 fleet had collectively logged more than 250,000 hours.

A post-production cargo conversion of the A-310-200, designated A-310-P2F and performed by EADS EFW in Dresden, Germany, entailed the installation of a forward, left, up-opening door, which facilitated loading of 11 96 x 125-inch or 16 88 x 125-inch main deck pallets, while three of the former and six LD3 containers could be accommodated on the lower deck. With an 89,508-pound payload and a 313,055-pound maximum take off weight, the freighter offered 10,665 cubic feet of internal volume.

The last of the 255 A-310s produced, an A-310-300 registered UK-31003, first flew on April 6, 1998 and was delivered to Uzbekistan Airways two months later, on June 15. Although Airbus Industrie had contemplated offering a shorter -fuselage version of the A-330, the A-330-500, as a potential A-310 replacement, its range and capacity had proved too high to assume its mission profiles. Resultantly, no definitive design ever succeeded it.

Boeing Rocks the Battle Space With Its New Phantom Ray

One of the most awesome displays of human ingenuity and proof of the abundance which capitalism provides was the Boeing Company in designing, creating, testing, and proving their concept of their new Phantom Ray UAV. Quite impressive indeed, and it was paid for completely by The Boeing Company. Not often does a company go out…

One of the most awesome displays of human ingenuity and proof of the abundance which capitalism provides was the Boeing Company in designing, creating, testing, and proving their concept of their new Phantom Ray UAV. Quite impressive indeed, and it was paid for completely by The Boeing Company. Not often does a company go out of its way to do what must be done, calculating the future, and seizing the day. The Boeing Company did just that with their introduction of the Phantom Ray.

Why do I feel this is so important? Well, I've been watching the modern battlespace grow up and I too see the future. Sikorsky is also blazing the field with their newer test prototype, calling it pure research, as they display their latest Sikorsky X-2. When companies do this, they are making a statement; they are saying to the world, “we believe in our team, we believe in the American Tradition, and we believe we will be here tomorrow to be part of that proud future.”

For companies like Boeing, Sikorsky, and the others who are on the leading edge of flight, sometimes with secret R and D projects that we do not yet know about, I for one salute you. Not long ago, our Think Tank was discussing a new way to help propel scramjets through transitional periods of flight from an atmosphere, into space, and back again. We noted that the pioneers of yester-year are still with us today. And they are the same fine companies, Built to Last, as Stanford Business School professor Collins might say.

These are the companies who are not only investing in America's future, but their own as well, and we should be proud, because they are flying those dreams; “and like nothing else” as The Boeing Company's marketing explains. The Phantom Ray will change combat forever, and swarms of such robotic unmanned aircraft will protect this nation and continue to serve the free world. It is doubtful that any other nation will have companies that are willing to put their money where their mouths are, and risk hard earned cash and capital and take on such risks.

For these great American companies it should be obvious, they do not see it as a risk, they believe it is a way of doing business, and history continues to reward their endeavors over and over again. If you are wondering where I am betting my money, you have to look no further, I always bet on winners. Please consider this.

Flying Simulations

For the past few weeks I have been searching for a flying simulations software that will give me all I am looking for in one. Unfortunately, all of the simulators I found were a “basic version” which allows a limited number of air crafts and airports, now, there are many so called flying simulations out…

For the past few weeks I have been searching for a flying simulations software that will give me all I am looking for in one. Unfortunately, all of the simulators I found were a “basic version” which allows a limited number of air crafts and airports, now, there are many so called flying simulations out there but if I am honest (and I tend to be) 90% of them could have been called “games” and it would be a more accurate description of what they are.

While we, the costumers, dream of a real world made in to flying simulations software, we dig deeper and deeper on the search of one just to discover high graphics air combats with almost no relation to the real thing. Of course, it is quite easy to find what we all have been looking for, we just need to reach deeper in to our pockets to buy every plane model and every airport separately.

On my search after the perfect flying simulations software I have stumbled on some which were worthy of their name but did not live to the full expectation I have developed in my mind, at least not at an affordable version and I found myself wasting money for the possibility of finding “the one”. When you love flying as much as I do you will not stop at this, so I gave up the idea of ​​finding “the one” at a good price and bought a rather expensive version of a flying simulations software we all know, without mentioning any names, I really do not appreciate it when I have to pay more and more money in an endless scheme in order to match the level of the game or flying for that matter.

A really fully featured, realistic and inexpensive flying simulations software is still hard to find on regular search paths, I should mention that there are a few and if you are looking for it, you will not make my mistakes and spend an amount of money you can buy a car with.

Flying Far? 15 Tips to Help You Get Over Jet Lag

Over 15 million people fly across multiple times zones and at anytime there are 500,000 passengers in the air. For those people who fly through a 2 or more time zones – especially if they fly east to west – Jet Lag can be a serious issue. It can leave us tired and confused, it…

Over 15 million people fly across multiple times zones and at anytime there are 500,000 passengers in the air. For those people who fly through a 2 or more time zones – especially if they fly east to west – Jet Lag can be a serious issue. It can leave us tired and confused, it disposes our body clock and effects our sleeping patterns. Here we have found ways to stay alert and focused during the day and have a good night's sleep.

1. Acclimatise

If you are going away for more than two days, begin to acclimatise your body to the new time zone, by changing your appointment schedule in advance of taking off, it works best if you start 3 days before you fly.

If you are flying across eastwards across Canada from Vancouver to Toronto, then 3 days before you take off eat an hour earlier each day, and vice versa, (eat an hour later each day before the return flight)

2. Fly early

Regular business travelers attempt to organize their meetings in other time zones on a Monday, so that they can travel on Saturday or Sunday. This gives them more time to get used to the new time zone and help their body clock. The extra time really helps. There can be some complaints from employers regarding extra nights cost of hotel rooms, but as you are losing your weekend, they can not complain too much.

3. Stay Hydrated

Drink plenty of the water on the plane, and also avoid drinking alcohol and any caffeine based drinks while on the plane, all of these can dehydrate you and affect your internal body clock as well as make any jet lag symptoms much worse.

4. Upgrade

If you have an overnight flight and meetings in the morning, and will need to be on top form direct from the flight, book a first or business class seat, so that you can have some sleep. The upright seating position with little legroom in economy makes your body produce an adrenaline- like substance that keeps your blood flowing to your brain. This stops you from sleeping and even if you manage to drop off, stops you from falling into a deep restful sleep. Whereas lying down in a business class seat-bed with all the extra room and comfort that the upper classes offer, reduces the problem and you can be ready for anything when you arrive at your destination.

5. Carb up

Have a plate of spaghetti or linguine or other carbohydrate food for dinner the night before a flight. There is some debate upon the effects that carbs have on jet-lag, and whether it raises or lowers your ability to get a good night's sleep. Recent research on clock genes have uncovered that carbs can increase your chances of getting to sleep, especially when you fly west. No one knows why they help, but it is a fact that carbohydrates give your brain an extra source of tryptophan from which it can make serotonin that helps you to sleep.

6. Stay cool

If it is nighttime at your final destination when you are in the air, then try and sleep on the plane. Use eyeshades and earplugs to help you shut out the noise and lights on the plane, if you can adjust the air conditioning to a high level so you are cool. Your body clock interprets your being cool as time for sleep and as the temperature decreases around you, then your body's core temperature lowers and makes you want to sleep. Whilst a higher temperature raises your body's core temperature and tells your brain it's time to get up. To stop yourself being too cold, take a pillow and blanket set.

7. Do not eat the food

Your body clock is also affected by food, and as airline meals are served based upon the time at the departure airport, eating it can seriously damage any attempt you have made to adjust your body clock.

8. Sleeping pills

If you take short acting sleeping pills these will help you to drop off during an overnight flight, and can help you sleep through the first few nights at your destination. Beware that taking a pill later than you should will increase the effects of jet-lag. A greater danger is if the pill lasts longer than the flight, meaning that you arrive at your destination feeling drowsy and sleepy. Which can have serious consequences if you have to drive a car.

9. Melatonin

Melatonin is an over the counter medication, that once taken will assist you in trying to sleep. It has a weaker effect than sleeping pills, but has an impact on your internal body clock and nudges it towards sleep. Sleep specialists have calculated that if you are flying east you should take a 3-5 milligram capsule once you land and when flying westwards take a pill at bedtime at the local time. You do not need a prescription to buy Melatonin, but as it can affect your brain's chemicals consult a doctor before using, particularly if you are on other medication.

10. Eat Eggs

Having a protein-rich eggs Benedict, in the morning after you arrive, will help your brain produce the neuro-chemicals it needs to stay alert through the day.

11. Do not alter you watch.

If you're only going away for a couple of days, do not reset your watch, stay on the same schedule for eating and sleeping that you have at home. For example if you normally have dinner in Ottawa at 8pm then if you are in Edmonton for a few days have dinner at 6pm.

12. Or change straight away.

If it is a longer trip, then help your body to adjust quickly, by not only resetting your watch but eat, go to bed and wake up at local times as well.

13. Exercise

Many hotels have gym or sports facilities, as well as swimming pools. Try and schedule a 30 minute workout when you are away. Pack you gym kit and you'll feel better.

14. Beware of Fuzz brain

Once you arrive at your destination, do not drive long distances or make important decisions for at least 24 hours after you land. If you are a tiny bit affected by jet lag, you ability to think and react is greatly impaired and can have consequences for you.

15. Stay in the dark

Even if the view from your hotel window is stunning, resist the urge to keep the curtains open, and close the curtains to help you to sleep when you want. Turn the air conditioning down as well, as this helps. If you can adjust the conditions you can induce your body clock and give it clear instructions to go to sleep.

Learning More About Private Pilot Training

When we are growing up many of us have the dream of becoming a pilot, which is why some people find themselves going for private pilot training when they get older. If you want to become a pilot and you want to fly commercial aircraft, you need to know that there are a lot of…

When we are growing up many of us have the dream of becoming a pilot, which is why some people find themselves going for private pilot training when they get older. If you want to become a pilot and you want to fly commercial aircraft, you need to know that there are a lot of things that you have to take into consideration. The first thing that you have to do is make sure that you do well in school, because this plays a huge role in your future studies to become a pilot. This is the reason most people go for private pilot training.

Now, whether you are becoming a commercial pilot or a private one, you will need to know that you are going to need to put in a lot of hours on training and studying, and all of those hours are dedicated to your education before you actually take to the skies, or even see a flight simulator in a lesson. You need a plan at all times; This is one of the things you will learn in your schooling. This is why mathematics, for logical thinking, is needed as a prerequisite in most courses.

Now the experience you get from being a private pilot differs from being a commercial one. You will find that most private pilots do not travel all over the world, as they are – most of the time, flying charted aircraft that will go from one state to another. There are, however, those lucky few that land a job with rich business people who own their own planes. Here you will find yourself flying to many different countries as your take your client from meeting to meeting.

In your private pilot training you will also need to decide if you are going to fly small planes or large planes like private jets. You will find that there are a lot of business people out there who are in need of helicopter pilots – so this may be a route to look at when getting your wings. The one thing that you will need to keep in mind is that you do not what to accelerate your training – never try to cut corners and do not make hasty decisions when you are doing your private pilot training.

Before you start training you will need to find a school that you can trust. There are a number of different schools in the country, but you will have to find one that you are going to like to be at. There is nothing worse than going to a school that does not make the learning process fun.

If you are going to take a course that you can do from home, you will need to make sure that you take your time and learn everything you need to. You will have people lives in your hands when you are in the skies, so make sure that you take their lives and the flying of the plane seriously in your private pilot training.

Famous Firsts

Throughout aviation history there were many people. The fame that they achieved was earned. There were also people that were behind the scenes. The ones that were behind the scenes were the unsung heroes. Technology with regards to aviation and aerospace has advanced at a rapid pace. The following are some examples of famous firsts.…

Throughout aviation history there were many people. The fame that they achieved was earned. There were also people that were behind the scenes. The ones that were behind the scenes were the unsung heroes. Technology with regards to aviation and aerospace has advanced at a rapid pace. The following are some examples of famous firsts.

The Wright Brothers were the first to fly a heavier-than-air plane but they did not do it alone. Without the Weather Service they would not have known the location in the United States that had constant moderate to heavy winds so they could test there gliders. They corresponded with others such as Octave Chanute. Without the help of Charlie Taylor, their mechanic, they would not have had an engine to power their airplane. The Wright Brothers did not attend an Aeronautical University because one did not exist. They built there own wind tunnel and they designed and made there own propellers. NASA tested them and they were found to be 80% efficient (today's are only 85%). The Wright Brothers had been told that they were crazy and that man was not meant to fly but they both persisted. They did not give up.

Charles Lindbergh describes all the fame and accolades that were bestowed upon him when he made his solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean at the age of 25. But he did not do it alone either. He had financial backers to fund his flight. Also, without the designers, engineers, and craftsman the airplane he flew would not exist. There were many detractors and naysayers. But he was a persistent man. He was told that he needed a multi-engine plane and he said that was not necessary

Chuck Yeager was the first man to break the sound barrier. He was 24-years old at the time. He would not have been able to do so without the people from NACA (the precursor to NASA), or the US Air Force. The Bell X-1 which he flew would not exist without the designers, engineers, craftsman, and technicians at Bell Aircraft. Hundreds of people were behind his endeavor. The aircraft was shaped like a.50 caliber bullet and was built exceptionally strong. People at the time were saying that the sound barrier was a physical barrier that could not be broken, and even if it was it would lead to the destruction of the aircraft and fatality for the pilot.

Neil Armstrong was the first man to step onto the moon. Without thousands and thousands of people in NASA (scientists and engineers) and all of the contractors and sub-contractors that built all of the hardware (Saturn V rocket, Lunar Module, Command Module, etc., etc.) he would not have been able to make that most famous of steps. We also can not forget the Mercury Program with the famous original seven astronauts. Then there was the Gemini Program that had two astronauts in a capsule. Then the Apollo Program with three astronauts on each flight. Even with the horrific fatal fire in 1967 of Apollo 1 on the launch pad with the loss of the three astronauts (Gus Grissom, Ed White, and Roger Chaffee) the program went forward.

The events that these individuals were involved in that changed aviation history and world history came down to the following famous dates:

Thursday December 17, 1903 at 10:35 am for the Wright Brothers.

Saturday and Sunday May 20-21, 1927 for Charles Lindbergh.

Tuesday October 14, 1947 for Chuck Yeager.

Sunday July 20, 1969 at 10:56:15 pm EDT for Neil Armstrong.

After each of the above pivotal events in aviation and space there were many, many technological advances and discoveries. After the Wright Brothers made there a famous flight in 1903 many other aviation inventors and pioneers from around the world created, discovered and made great strides in aviation. By the way, the speed of the Wright Flyer on that historic flight was 6.8 miles per hour. The same goes for innovations and technological breakthroughs during and after World War I. After Charles Lindbergh made his solo crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 in 33-1 / 2 hours, time and distance became shorter and shorter and the world started to become a much smaller place. During and after World War II more and more technological achievements were made. After the sound barrier was broken in 1947 faster and faster aircraft (military and civil) were created.

And here are two examples of that:

On September 1, 1974 a US Air Force SR-71 “Blackbird” spy plane flew from New York to London in 1-hour, 54-minutes, 56.4-seconds.

On February 7, 1996 a supersonic transport (SST) called Concorde and flew by the British Airways airline, crossed the Atlantic Ocean from London to New York in the record time of 2-hours, 52-minutes, 59-seconds.

And the technology spinoffs from the space program are almost too many to count. The drive to discover, create, innovate and succeed is awe inspiring. These famous firsts will not be forgotten and I am sure there will be many more famous firsts to come in aviation and aerospace.

Aircraft Lubrication Equipment

Aircraft maintenance lubrication equipment is used as pumping equipment to apply controlled or metered amounts of lubricant. Applications include compressed air lines, dies, chains, cables, bearings, gears, pumps, spindles and other rotating or moving machine components. Important parameters to consider when specifying such equipment are capacity, lubrication flow rate, operating pressure, and maximum operating temperature.…

Aircraft maintenance lubrication equipment is used as pumping equipment to apply controlled or metered amounts of lubricant. Applications include compressed air lines, dies, chains, cables, bearings, gears, pumps, spindles and other rotating or moving machine components. Important parameters to consider when specifying such equipment are capacity, lubrication flow rate, operating pressure, and maximum operating temperature. The flow rate is the rate at which the lubrication is dispensed. Operating pressure returns to the maximum allowable pressure that the lubricator can be operated if pneumatically or hydraulically-operated lubricators. Gravity-fed lubricators operate at atmospheric pressure. Maximum operating temperature is the full-required range of ambient operating temperature.

Media choices include dry lubricant, grease, oil, and air and oil. Operation or actuation mechanisms include electric, electrochemical, gravity, hydraulic, manual, mechanical, and pneumatic. Constant level equipment is designed to keep a constant level of lubrication fluid in a bearing housing or gearbox. Full flow lubrication equipment dispenses un-metered liquid lubricant. However, closed system equipment is the future.

Aircraft maintenance lubrication equipment and the environment.

Macnaught greasing products, for example, are greasing products made with full attention to efficiency practices, waste minimization, pollution prevention, legal requirements and environmental objectives.
Used lubricants may contain materials that are harmful to the environment. Lubricant conservation and used oil reclamation, reprocessing, and disposal, the concepts of the environmental compatibility biodegradability and toxicity of the lubricants are the best tools to restrain the ever-increasing use of lubricants. Lubricants with extended useful life are being developed and this also translates into cost savings.

Touch Above the World So High

Wow! We have made everything possible today; we are blooming in such a miraculous world now where we get the best technology, sumptuous living style, classic discoveries and everything seems so strategic. There was a time when a man was amused to see the birds flying in the sky, this activity really appeared to the…

Wow! We have made everything possible today; we are blooming in such a miraculous world now where we get the best technology, sumptuous living style, classic discoveries and everything seems so strategic. There was a time when a man was amused to see the birds flying in the sky, this activity really appeared to the primitive man, who was not able to think about any such idea of ​​flying so high and touching those transparent clouds.

But at that time man was unaware of the brain power he has born with. Gradually, the earth got re-shaped due to natural calamities and now there were several dimensions which created very long distances for the human race and departed so many people from each other. Earth was cut like a cake and scattered its pieces around, and as we know necessity is the mother of invention so now the concept of flying from one end to the other was the one and only way to get connected to each other. Slowly and steadily we invented such a way out which was impossible for our race as we are not wared with those qualities. We actually did what was simply unbelievable!

Yes we were now able to fly, bird watching was no more a miraculous activity but only an activity. We came up with this concept of Air planes which can personify as a metallic bird with wings which can carry a big lot of people from one country to another and then the link established. Later on when the capacity multiplied there were certain conditions and rules emerged and regular coming and going by air was now named as '' Flight ''.

This is how we started commuting for long distances as we can see that now it is like a routine for many of us who prefer flights only if it is an official tour, business conference or whatever the occasion is we move candidly by flight. To make these journeys and ways more comfortable we have marked out few important destinations to catch the flight all over the world. If you talk about India, we have the best and example of Flights to Mumbai . Now Delhi being the central place and the capital of India we have Delhi to Mumbai flights as well. This is the best and the fastest way to get anywhere in any corner of the world. There are several airlines have come which also provide all the facilities to the flyer. So now we do not think, we do it and since we have proved it too.

The Inherent Security Associated With Private Aircraft

One of the most overlooked benefits of flying via private aircraft is the additional security one acquires. Much of this security is an extension of more obvious benefits like scheduling. When being sold on using a private aircraft one is told of the immediate benefits, but security is often overlooked because the need is not…

One of the most overlooked benefits of flying via private aircraft is the additional security one acquires. Much of this security is an extension of more obvious benefits like scheduling. When being sold on using a private aircraft one is told of the immediate benefits, but security is often overlooked because the need is not immediate. Neverheless, it is there.

One of the first benefits is that a private flight is private. It is not open to anyone can afford to fly. That means one's fellow passengers are individuals they know or one can be flying alone. This gives a great deal of security from terrorism as no one will be trying to take over control of the plane or trying to destroy it mid-air. In addition to terrorism, there is protection from corporate espionage. No people will be trying to listen on conversation or look at documents one is working on.

One of the selling points for using private jets is that there are ten times more airports available for private aircraft in the United States than there are for the major airlines. This provides a lot options to get to and from a location without detection. It also limits the amount of time one gifts on the ground in an undesired location. This security benefit is enhanced when one is peaking of international travel. Should a country be potentially hostile, a private aircraft can get one in and out quickly.

A concern with the commercial airlines is baggage. With all the inspections they go through, luggage has been a concern for quite some time. With a private aircraft one does not have that concern. Just as one is not flying with anyone they do not know, they are by extrapolation not carrying anything with the intent to harm. If the one is flying solo, then the only luggage will be their own. What the aircraft is carrying is what the passengers bring, nothing more except personally cleaned with the primary passenger and the pilots.

Finally, a key security feature of flying privately is the schedule. One gets to dictate when they leave. There is no waiting on the aircraft. A private flight passenger gives notice that they are ready and the aircraft is prepped to take-off when the passenger arrives. Should the passenger desire to leave much sooner or later than originally planned they only need to give notice. The aircraft will be ready and waiting. Also, the itinerary and passenger list is kept private. There is no one on board to notify anyone of who is on board or where they are going.

As one can see there is much security provided with flying on a private aircraft.

The List of Travel Entertainment Accessories

Travel entertainment accessories are pleasurable partners especially when you have a long flight trips. You are lucky enough, if you get in-flight entertainments such as audio / video facilities through personal screen and controls. If you did not get any facilities, it is up to you to entertain yourself with the available resources. During the…

Travel entertainment accessories are pleasurable partners especially when you have a long flight trips. You are lucky enough, if you get in-flight entertainments such as audio / video facilities through personal screen and controls. If you did not get any facilities, it is up to you to entertain yourself with the available resources. During the long hauls, entertainment accessories are compulsory for the solo travelers. In this article, I have discussed about the 6 ways of entertaining yourself while you traveling.

Pocket Board Games:

This will entertain you when you travel with someone. Even you can play with the fellow traveler who is sitting next to you, only if they are willing to join. But in long flights, social interactions are common. It is not possible for anyone to sit ideal for more than an hour. You can enjoy your trip, if you get a nice playing companion to challenge and play in a friendly manner. You can choose to play checkers, Backgammon, Reversi and Chess.

Books and Magazines:

It is a great advantage for you to complete your favorite novels that you have started during your long flight. Reading an international magazine will help you to catch up your current events knowledge. Here, you can spend time on reading interesting books and leading magazines.

Try Paper puzzle games:

If you are interested in resolving puzzles, you can take a few puzzle books and play puzzle games. Here, you do not require disturbing others. You can play it on your own without another partner. There are mind blowing puzzle games such as Sudoku, Crossword and other paper puzzle games.

Puzzle Toys and Rubik's Cube:

You can solve brain teaser questions. You can challenge yourself and play Rubik's cube and other mind blowing puzzle games. This will entertain you wonderfully. You can have a nice pass time playing puzzle games.

Sketch Pad, Scrapbook and Journal:

Sometimes, travelers can start a journal or scrapbook and this is the great way to unleash your creativity. You can keep them as a memory of your travel. If you are interested in drawing, you can prefer doing nice sketching.

Playing Cards:

If you have two or three fellow travelers, you can play poker, bridge or rummy. Also you can play any games with cards. Do not worry, if you are alone. Still you can play a little game like Solitaire. If you feel bored playing alone, you can invite other passengers to join with you in playing. We can see a great chat and conversation amongst travelers especially when they travel for long hauls.